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L A S C A 
LEAVES 
1 - 5 

1950 - 1955 



Index 1-5 




i 



mt/Ai/^ mo 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 

Dr. F. W. Went Presider 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr... Vice-Presiden 

Mrs. Franklin Booth.- Vice-Presider 

Howard A. Miller Treasur 

Manchester Boddy 
Robert Casamajor 
Ralph D. Cornell 
Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

J. F. Douglas 
Mrs. Thomas Fleming 
William Hertrich 
John C. Macfarland 
Samuel B. Mosher 
Mrs. William D. Shearer 
W. A. Smith 



ANGELES ^Sli^^?^ ARBORETUM 
STAFF 



Dr. R. J. Seibert. . 
George H. Spai.di 

W. QU.NN Bl . K 

J. Thomas McCmh 
Dewey E. Ni i ^on 

ThELMA G. Bl.AN 

Olive Hazi^li 



LASCA LEAVES 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES ^^^^^^'{^ ARBORETUM 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. PUBLICATION 

VOL. I OCTOBER, 1950 No. 1 



THE LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY 
ARBORETUM 

R. J. Seibert 




the Coach Barn. Mr. Baldwin visited China 
in 1873, thereafter having direct contacts 
in that country. Presumably the trees were 
planted from seed obtained there between 
1875 and 1880. Two of the trees are female. 
Our finest and largest specimen is a male 



: the i 



The Gil 



) the 



tates near Philadelphia about s 
lars before California became 
, H. M. Butterfield, of the Univ 
lalifornia Agricultural Extens 



latter 1850's, and that John Sutter of gold 
fame had the tree growing on his place 
above Sacramento in 1858. Information 
concerning the earliest planting of Ginkgo 
in the Los Angeles area is vague although 
there is a bare possibility that Ozro W. 
Childs may have had the tree at his nur- 
sery by the 1870's. 

Ginkgo biloba, the only extant species of 
the genus, has several recognized forms, 

egata, macrophylFa, and laciniata. The 
National Shade Tree Conference recom- 
mends Ginkgo as a street tree for Southern 
California, preferring the fastigiata form. 
For private gardens, however, the pendula 



uld take preference bee 
2 weeping habit, 
the foul odor of the ma 



gated from seed are not distinguishable 
between male and female until they have 
matured to flowering size. Grafting or bud- 



' this ] 



of rooting cuttings 



propagation. 

The Ginkgo is one of the 
trees introduced into Southern California 
which shows beautiful golden autumn 
foliage. During the leafless period from 
about December to the beginning of March 
it shows an attractive, unique branching 
habit to excellent advantage. The Ginkgo 
withstands smoke, dust, drought, frost and 
automobile fumes of city conditions. Yes- 
it even withstands smog! It is a clean, 
attractive tree with no serious diseases or 



ng the chapter on the Patriarchal 
go^in Ernest H. Wilson's "Aristocrats 



THE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS 
OF 

RANCHO SANTA ANITA 



eyards and 



ety ; 



: Alvarado a year 



ne, I introduced all my farming posses- 
)ns; I planted a vineyard consisting of 
considerable number of vines and built 
hx)u.se of stone." The evidence of one's 
m eyes today, and of visitors to Santa 
uta during Reid's day, indicates that this 
scription was designed ' 



which Don Hugo shared with his In- 
wife and children was built of adobe 

like every other residence in Cali- 
a of the '30s. It was unique not in con- 
tion, but in planting and natural 



entory (of June 1, 1844) 
lizing the one-story, L- 
irrounded by extensive 



Victoria received from the San Gabriel 
Mission padres, as slips and seeds from 
their typical mission garden. Don Hugo 
lists 40,000 grape vines; 21 fig trees, 7 
plums, 25 pears, 5 apple trees, 32 oranges, 
40 pomegranates, 2 honey mesquite trees, 
240 peaches, 8 blood oranges, 3 walnuts, 7 



itess: "Both Reid 

everything^ (their own market place on 

ously. Dona Victoria had a fine Indian 
cook who had been educated in the art at 
the Mission of San Gabriel, though the 



Hugo Reid was the grantee . 




Transplanted from Palm Canyon to San Marino between 1840-45 by a prospector 
named Stockton. Photo taken about 1860. — Courtesy Huntington Library. 



SEED AND PLANT DISTRIBUTION 

The Annual membership meeting on the Arboretum grounds held June 13, 1950, wa 
climaxed by the first distribution of seeds and plants to members. Seeds included: 
Cyphomandra betacea Pavonia praemorsa 

De^^modinm. sp. Pterocarya stenoptera 

Harpephyllum caffrum Rhigozum brevispinosum 

Heimia myrtifolia Tipuana tipu 

In addition, each member was given a choice of three potted plants among: 
Eucalyptus erythrocorys Callistemon speciosus 

Eucalyptus erythronema Calotfiamnus snvguivevf< 

Eucalyptus megacomuta Chaenostoma grandiflora 

GIFTS RECEIVED 

October 1, 1949, to June 30, 1950 (Exclusive of Money Donations) 
American Begonia Society 4 Booklets 

Anonymous 1 Book "American Men of Science" 

Ayres, Jr., Dr. Samuel 9 Books, 315 packets of seed 

Ceres of California 1 Sack of Sponge Rok 

Chuck's Nursery 3 Sacks of steer manure 

Cymbidium Society of Pasadena .... 17 Books 

Dakin, Mr. Richard Y 1 Book "Lucky Baldwin" by 

C. B. Glasscock 

Dakin, Mrs. Richard Y Original painting of the Lagoon by Allai 

Gamble, Professor of Architecture, Uni 

Darland, Charles 5 PlantT-°//a??rf Ipp. 

Fleming, Mrs. Thomas 5 Books 

Forbes, Jr., Ian, & Ferguson, Marvin H. . 1 Book 
Gale, Col. CM 1 Pamphlet 

Hoak, Charlotte M Manuscript "Trees and Shrubs of New Zea 

land" by the late Katherine D. Jone 
Horton, Jerome 1 Book 

Howard & Smith Nursery 2 Large sacks of Georgia Peat 

Howard's "Flowerland," Paul J. ... 30 Plants of Fat^ia japovica 

Jessop, A. W 2 Books 

Kelsey, Harlan P Set of "American Forestry" 

McCaffree, J. E 11 35 mm. Kodachrome slides of Arboretun 

12 35 mm. Kodachrome slides of Pasaden 
Gardens 
1 35 mm. Viewer 
1 SVE-AAA Projector 35 mm. 
1 40x40-inch Radiant Screen 

Mennmger, Mr. Elmore 4 Books 

O'Donnell, Dr. John 2 Books 

Philips, Amy J 1 Plant - Idria columrieris 

Purdy, Elmer C Copy of Monograph on Calochortus 

Rancho Santa Anita, Inc 1 Booklet "Romance of Rancho Sant 

Roberts, Mr. A. W 35 Books on Roses 

Samms, Charles 64 Plants of Prunus luonii 

Saunders, Mrs. Mira 2 Books "The Story of Carmelita— Its As 

sociations and Its Trees" and "Trees an( 
Shrubs of California Gardens" b 
Charles Francis Saunders 
3 Original drawings used for illustratin 

Seiber., Dr. Russell J 4 7^^^^ ^r^i""^^''^" 

Southern California Camellia Society . . 2 Pamphlets 

Southwest Museum 2 Pamphlets 

Van Rensselaer, Dr. Maunsell 13 Books and pamphlets 

wTlker!^ Winsiovv^M^ ^\ Pamphlets 

Went. Dr. Frits W 1 Book 

Woodard, Mr. E. H 2 Plant urns 



MEMBERSHIP 

nual Associate Membership S 5.00 

nual Membership 10.00 

nual Contributing Membership . .. 25.00 

nual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

nual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

e Membership 500.00 

anders 1000.00 or more 

lefactors 5000.00 or more 

Club Memberships are available, at any amount, 



Checks should he made payable to the California Arboretum 
I'oufidatnw, Inc.. ami sent to our headquarters at 291 North 
Old Ranch Road. Arcadia. CaUj. Phone DOu^las 7-34 U. 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum is 
operated by California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., a 
non-profit corporation. The Foundation is developing and 
managing the Arboretum under an agreement with the 
Los Angeles County Board of 'Supervisors. Title to the 
120 acres of property is in the State of California, which 
has leased it to Los Angeles County for fifty years. 
Construction operations are actively commenced by the 
County of Los Angeles in accordance with the master 
plan of the foundation prepared by Harry Sims Bent. 
Because of safety hazards the Arboretum is closed to the 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC 



Dr. Samiifi. Ayri:s 
Mrs, Frank! in Bo 



Manchester Boddy 
Robert Casamajor 
Ralph D. Cornell 

rs. Richard Y. Dakii 
J. F. Douglas 

Irs. Thomas Fleming 



\KBORETUM 



LASCA LEAVES 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES ^S^J^^^'' ARBORETUM 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. PUBLICATION 

VOL. I JANUARY, 1951 No. 2 l/ 




IliKE LOS 



^^GELES STATE A 



ORE 



SIS 



iiis 



MAirj HIGn/y^r'b- 00^ j^^jj ON THE 
NORTH-HUNTINGTON DRIVE ON THE SOUTH 
\ BY MEANS OF BALDWIN 
AVENUE EXTENSION AND 

■''^'^ . ESPLANADE 



THE ARBORETUM LIES IN THE HEART OF OLD RANCK 
SANTA ANITA -RENOWNED IN THE ANNALS OF EARL: 
CALIFORNIA AND CONTAINING HISTORICAL BUlLDiNO: 
TO BE RESTORED AND PRESERVED -THE GROUNDS WIL 
BE LANDSCAPED WITH LIVING PLANT DISPLAYS USIN- 
ADAPTABLE SPECIES INTRODUCED FROM MANY REGION; 
OF THE WORLD -THE ARBORETUM PROGRAM CALLS FC: ^ 
A COMPLETE ESTABLISHMENT DEDICATED TO THE BROf: 
ADVANCEMENT OF HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE-PRACTIO: , 
AND EDUCATION-AUTHORITY FOR THE CREATION AN- 
OPERATION OF THE ARBORETUM IS VESTED IN TH : , 
TRUSTEES OF THE CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATIO^ i ^ 

ENABLED BY GRANTS AND FUNDS FROM THE STATE Cr, 
CALIFORNIA-THE COUNTY OF LOS ANGELES AND PRlV%pgUBSCR|PTioNS 
AND GIFTS-CHARTED ABOVE IS A DIAGRAM OF THE MA^J^V^!;^^ OF THE 
ARBORETUM DESIGNED BY MR. HARRY SIMS BENT-AH^,"^' tC.T-- SHOWING 
THE BASIC GROUND LAYOUT AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES^' 'HE PROGRAM. 



AMOELES, STAT>-.^N^"T:mJNrY A R BORE 




GROWING NOTES 




asca 
oteaves 




spRim mi 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 

Dr. F. W. Went President 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr Vice-President 

Mrs. Franklin Booth Vice-President 

Howard A. Miller Treasurer 

Manchester Boddy 
Robert Casamajor 
Ralph D. Cornell 
Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

J. F. Douglas 
Mrs. Thomas Fleming 
William Hertrich 
John C. Macfarland 
Samuel B. Mosher 
Mrs. William D. Shearer 
John Anson Ford, Ex-Offnw 

{Founded Through the lijjorts of the 
Southern California Horticultural Institute) 

LOS ANGELES ''l^^^^"^^ ARBORETUM 



Dr. R. J. Seibert. 
George H. Spald 
W. QuiNN Buck 
J. Thomas McGai 
Dewey E. Nelso 
Thelma G. Blai 



LASCA LEAVES 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES state^L ARBORETUM 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. PUBLICATION 

R. J. Seibert, Eclhor 



VOL. 



APRIL, 1951 



TO MAKE OUR LAND MORE BEAUTIFUL 



-ecall with gratification the remarks 
? to me three or four years ago by Dr. 
uel Ayres, Jr., regarding the unre- 
d opportunities possessed by Southern 
ornia, and Los^Angeles County^in par- 

ioki?ul\ure.°Partkular!y'd?I remem- 
Dr. Ayres' eloquent emphasis on the 
ntages, both aesthetic and commer- 



[ifornia Arboretum 

litable property where 
f the County and the 



?commeilded^^I 
of persuasion, 



Willie 



unrealized opportun 
How could the go^ 
Los Angeles Countj 
in this intriguing p 

relatio'^^lf- b^ 
owned property is ui 



and better r 



I the Holly- 
ilCounty. 

omposed of 



usic by making it i 
the rank and file, 
altural experiment piom 

Did Dr. Ayres and other 1 

;rn might be employed i 

lit of many conferences 



b ^ \)^^^' 

Supervisors, the support 
I Division of Beaches and 
;ted. Thus began a joint 
Y investment whose total 



is concerned 1 



•llowing a plan < 



: government 
cally. As far 



by"officials cooperating with priva 
^' ^-'ds. The County R 



other fields, 
ind the County Art Institute profit richly 
)y voluntary citizen organizations which 
xert an important influence in their re- 
pective fields. At the great Los Angeles 
bounty General Hospital basic medical 



polic 



: by 1 



ng staff of 



20 



)rchards; some for the gorge 
their blossoms; and still ot 
beautiful silvery foliage. On 1 
Anita, almost any day at m 



geles State and Countj 



span in Southern Calif 



DAYLILY TEST GARDEN AT LASCA 

W. QuiNN Buck 



operate with both The Hemeroa 
and The American Plant Life Society; the 



an official ones 1 



cooperative trial garden replacing t 
formerly at the University of Califo 
Los Angeles. 

For Us beginning the ^^y^^^y ^^^t garden 

varieties, most of the species, and a great 
many of the writer's own seedlings. Tem- 
porarily, all of these are planted just south 



la^lily^test garden is being p 



ormance, and quality. 

Much of the breeding i 
viW be with the write 
uced polyploids, to explo 



LASCA TEMPERATURE 



placed and recorded data from 
imum-minimum thermometer 

covering the Arboretum gro 



; an important roll in 
ns within a very lim- 
Arboretum grounds. 



general, the lowest unprotected place 
subject to the coldest temperatures, 
coldest recorded temperature was 2 



At a low point between the Queen Anne 
Cottage and the lake, the temperature this 
same night was 24°. However, a moderat- 
ing effect of the lake no doubt accounted 
for the higher temperature at this parti- 
cular low point. 

^ From our present figures one can sei- 

station recording. Of more significance 
temperature variation ranges between dit 
on critical nights. 





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22 



"I RECALL . . 





LASCA, AND ITS BIRD-LIFE 



sands of yean 



1 brook. It wa; 
?e, and the Ind 
"A-hupquing-i 



iungle of 'Alder 



^ ^Ece^^of^^WateS 

ibtedly produced 
Liuer, Willow, Sycamore, v 
Coflfee-berry, Creek Dogw 
"ipe. Scattered ' 



veritable 



^erry, Baccharis and 
ac Knoll and the me: 
Such favorable cor 
:ontmued without a 1 



These almo ' 
shrubs, und 



, Elder- 



Queen Ann Cottage. Two other "birders" 
saw a roaming Duck Hawk and a roving 
Cardinal. In 1947, a pair of Pied-billed 



ced the Green Heron and Black- 
vned Night Heron nesting at the same 
2, in his yard. Two rare Florida Gal- 



I have compiled the records of the birds 
observed by local ornithologists in the area 
of the Arboretum, and to date the total is 
156 species: of these 39 are residents, 11 
summer residents, 20 winter residents, and 



upland birds and water fowl. It 
a stoppmg place of nature at- 
>r. rants on their way to and 



^^^K summerhomes 
Wh^'''^.?^^^^ Country. 



the'bes? spot fnTh"s ' l"t^^^^t 
hsl^ of birds. "Birders," induding" 



had haunted the place foTrverK ' othe 
About 1940, the Burrowing Owl and the mor. 
tMs ti "^^""^ -^^'^^ ^'^^"^ 



Sanctuary. The staff at the Arboretum is 

bird-life on the grounds. Plans are afoot 
to grow special plants which are known 
to furnish food for birds. The art and work 
of developing a great Arboretum was well 
under way in June 1950. There have been 
changes in removing trees, and 
se preparing for new landscaping; 
coming, but the grounds and the 



GROWING NOTES 



record and of some hefp to those gardener 
Following is a germination table based > 
the Georgia Peat and Sponge Rok mixti 
by symbols as follows: B— boiling water 



Alyogyne multifidw 



Aspalathus sarcod 
Banksia burdettii 
Banksia ericifolia 



Eucalyptus cnicvs 
Eucalyptus erythrocorys 
Eucalyptus erythronema 
Eucalyptus erythronema Lairdi 
Eucalyptus Forrestiana 
Eucalyptus Gunnii 
Eucalyptus Lehmannii 
Eucalyptus leuxcoxylon rosea 
Eucalyptus macrocarpa 
Eucalyptus megacornuta 

Eucalyptus nutans 
Eucalyptus Oldfieldii 
Eucalyptus pachyphylla 
Eucalyptus platypus 
Eucalyptus Preissiana 
Eucalyptus pyriformis 
Eucalyptus rhodantha 
Eucalyptus roseus 
Eucalyptus Stoatei 
Eucalyptus Tasmanica 



Hakea multilineato 
Hakea ruscifolia 
Hakea petiG-laris 



Callistemon acun, 
Callistemon coccineus 
Callistemon lanceolatu. 
Callistemon lilacinus 
Callistemon pallidus 
Callistemon pinifolius 
Callis 



alliste 



Chamaelaucium rubrum 



Eucalyptus caesia 
Eucalyptus calophylla 



Melaleuca pubescens 



styphel 



Melaleucf 
MekLleuci 
Telopea oreades 
Telopea speciosin. 
Verticordia Muel 
Verticordia plum 



MEMBERSHIP 



Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership . 500.00 

Founders 1000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5000.00 or more 



Club Memberships are available, at any amount, 
from SlO a year or more. 

All Contributions Deductible Under 
Federal Income Tax Lau/ 



Chech should be made payable to the Calif onua Arboretum 
Foundation. Inc.. and sent to our he.ui quarters at 291 North 
Old Ranch Road. Arcadia. C.dH. Phone DOuglas 7-3444. 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum is 
operated by California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., a 
non-profit corporation. The Foundation is developing and 
managing the Arboretum under an agreement with the 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Title to the 



Los Angeles in accordance with the maste 
foundation prepared by Harry Sims Ben 
safety hazards the Arboretum is closed to th 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



Dr. F. W. Went President 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr Vice-President 

Mrs. Franklin Booth Vice-President 

Howard A. Miller Treasurer 



Manchester Boddy 
Robert Casamajor 
Ralph D. Cornell 
Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

J. F. Douglas 
Mrs. Thomas Fleming 
William Hertrich 
John C. Macfarland 
Samuel B. Mosher 
Mrs. William D. Shearer 
John Anson Ford, Ex-Ojficio 

(Founded Through the Efforts of the 
Southern Calif or nta Horticultural Institute) 

LOS ANGELES ""l^^^^^ ARBORETUM 
STAFF 

Dr. R. J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Dewey E. Nelson . Custodian 

Thelma G. Blan( kaki, Secretary 



LASCA LEAVES 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES s™^^ ARBORETUM 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. PUBLICATION 

R. J. Seibert, Ecliior 



THE POMEGRANATE 

Charles Gibbs Adams 

ranch fountain-like form, its glossy clean foliage, 
ds the often red-veined, its exquisite blossoms of 
arlet with petals like crumpled 



1 lake 



vely putting out n, 

Historical Committee's revival work. alter the leave: 

s well over one hundred years old — a splitting open to 

vivor of Hugo Reid's orchard, listed in a rubies within—; 

er to Abel Stearns on June 1, 1844. Our render it a treaj 



uty 



a written record as the pomegranate. Three 
hi. i^f""^ King Solomon sang to 

his love,^ "I will cause thee to drink of 



food, drinks, crafts and medicine. 

for throat and intestinal ills. Morocco 
leather owes its fine quality to being 
tanned with the rind of the fruit. The rind 
also makes fine black ink. John Parkinson, 
the famous herbalist of Elizabethan days 



So fo^nd ^were tl 



freshment of pomegr 
S^'^'^u^''.^ complained 
wnich Moses led them 



red dye is made from the flowers, and wine 



hg trees and Pomegranates." 

Greek Theophrastus, Aristotle's succes- 
■i authoritatiVe^h ""^Pf/^*^^ School and 
S?f J sacred fruit over three hundred 
oma^ naturar^'^^" ^^"^ ^""^^^ 
-io Jness^ of^i}'"^^ ^^""^^^ .beauty, de- 
acPH T^l^'"*;'' ^to'^"ur^''da?!^Sha"kespea?e 
e window above a pomgran- 

id 1^, 'i whose glistening foliage 

sweetl the nightingale sang 



least demanding of good fruit trees, 
prosper in almost any soil from de: 
black adobe; it asks but little of fo 



,*This brings iT 



A^idely separated plants 
jenia, Feijoa, Guava, Mela 
rristania and Eucalyptus. 



26 



CHAIN OF TITLE FOR RANCHO SANTA ANITA 

(Prepared for LASCA by W. W. Robinson) 



NATION 
California gave v 
through Mexico' 



WILLIAM WOLFSKILL 



ELIAS J. (LUCKY) BALDWIN 



time— 1841— Governor Alvars 
provisional title to Rancho 



nita from 



) Reid in 1847. The 



1850, admitted 
ion. The Board of L 
pheld Dalton's title. 



RANCHO SANTA ANITA, INC. 
1936 

STATE OF CALIFORNIA 



:hase, the State leased the 
.OS Angeles County. The non- 
i-profit California Arboretum 

linister the Los Angeles State 



CHAIN OF HORTICULTURE 

Susanna Bryant Dakin 



— froml769until 1951— su 
have contributed to the h 
' Arboretum site. Even bef 



ply of food— growing wi 
tendmg.^Fish abounded 



K u "/x Waters. drinking the juice of Datura strni 
tl^J''it^^']^^^*^^ paralysis. Rheumatism was 

tlement Aleupkig- with the application of a string of c 
tie fuzz blisters set on fire like spun 
as a plentiful sup- pounded v " 



rattler). 



nach and bladde: 
es (all produce c 



sed. 

'I 



farming methods. Frequently he consulted 
with the Frenchman, Jean Louis Vignes, 
and Kentuckian William Wolfskill— two of 
his friends who, in Bancroft's Pioneer 

of California's greatest industry, the pro- 
duction of wine and fruit." With the padres 
at near by San Gabriel mission he ex- 
changed fruit, flower and vine. The va- 
in his inventory of 1844. 

William Heath Davis, visiting Santa Ani- 
ta during that year, described the Reid 
n lavish hacendndo style, 
meals 



family as livi 
eating epicun 
from "produ 



of the land.' 
of the classic 



Rhineland slips, 



I and added 1 
'chard— and popu- 
ansplanting small 



ralia. They are among the 



n California. On the df 
s erected a molirw, or gris1 
1 with fruit trees and flow 



Wolfskill died 



ng hills and beautiful a 



nemade wine, and the hos 
lome. Yet he lacked Midas' 
1 Gold Rush days; and was 



man who settled in Southern California 
after years of business life in Lima, Peru. 

Dalton added to Reid's vineyards and, 
for the first time, packed grapes in saw- 
dust as often is done today for shipping. 
Having paid $2,700 for the property, he 
sold it after seven years for $33,000— to 
Joseph A. Rowe, California's pioneer circus 
man. Strange animals then roamed the 
pasture, but among all the later owners 
of Santa Anita only Rowe did not flourish. 
He knew nothing about agriculture and 



t Santa Barbar; 
a Guerra. 
Corbitt and Dibblee a 



the 



hey could, the partners ope: 
ible cattle business until th 
for subdivision. 2,000 acres 
vent to Leonard Rose for $2 £ 
veloped that section into a 
■calling it "Sunnyslope," g 



had 



established. The s 
;ood and, once agai 



hounded the Wolfskills, 
anxious to plant orange and lemon groves 
on 1,000 acre plots. For this purpose, Al- 
fred and KaUiarine Cha^mian bought ^he 

In 1872 Harris Newmark (author of "Sixty 
Years in Southern California") paid $10.50 
per acre for the home ranch, reduced by 

Merchant Newmark learned from Rose — 
neighbor on Sunnyslope — how land can 
yield a good return in wine 
The cultivated 



area at Santa Anita he e 
tion into larger vineyards and planted tiny 
citrus trees. The more arid pasturelands he 
allotted to sheep.^s an adjunct to^his wool 

anticipation of the "Iron Horse" whose ar- 

But before completion of the Southern 
Pacific, Newmark disposed of Santa Anita 

In the spring of 1875, "Lucky" Baldwin 
passed through the San Gabriel Valley, in 



ORCHARD AND VINEYARD 

(Reid's Inventory, 1844) 



Hugo Reid first considered selling Santa 
Anita early in 1844, when hard times were 

holder, Don Abel Stearns, on June 1, ask- 
able." Among the assets of Santa Anita, 
Reid listed the following plantings in the 

"The vineyard is walled around. It con- 
tains vines totaling 22,730 and ground suf- 



besides 430 varieties of fruit trees: 20,500 

prieta (dark grapes), 2,070 uha blanca 
(white grapes), 160 uba cimarrona (native 
maroon grapes) in all, 22,730 vines and 
ground sufficient to make up the number 
of 40,000; 21 fig trees, 7 plums, 25 pears, 5 
apples, 32 oranges, 40 granadas (pomegran- 
ates), 2 advechegos (probably honey mes- 
quite trees), 240 duraznos (peaches), 8 ca- 
pulines (blood oranges), 3 nogales (walnut 
trees) 7 olivos (olive trees), 40 limones (lem- 




LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM 
HISTORICAL COMMITTEE 
ANNUAL REPORT — JUNE 12, 1951 

Under direction of President Went, the R. J. Seibert serves ex-officio, as Arbo- 

Historical Committee was formed and com- return Director. He has expressed admira- 

menced its active life in March, 1949. Since tion of the literary value of our minutes 

that date, $5750.00 has been raised by pri- and wishes a copy to be kept in the Arbo- 

- return Library. This seems the place to 
thank W. W. Robinson for keeping a rec- 

ion of the three historic buildings at the ord which goes far beyond conventional 

lancho Santa Anita. These lie within the minutes. As you know, he is a well-known 

iistorical Preserve as defined in the Ar- author (of California history and children's 

>oretum's Master Plan. Restorations will books) and we appreciate the trouble he 

nclude gardens adjacent to each build- takes to entertain us, as well as to record 

ng^ events. Ed Ainsworth occasionally pinch- 

ppreciation to Charles Gibbs Adams for Georgina Hicks Mage interested the Na- 

us contribution of time and thought in tional Society of Colonial Dames of Amer- 

•rehminary planning of the garden restor- ica in our project— besides personally con- 

tion— to Harry Sims Bent, Master Plan- tributing a great deal of thought and hos- 

T/ 'h^ completed work on the Reid pitality to the Historical Committee. Be- 

0 Maurice Block, for his willingness to zations already showing constructive in- 



ittee merits special ac- en West, tl 
fornia His 

is performing a valuable and Digge: 
I Arboretum Foundation, Drury, fori 



^nc, he has set up a separate Historical 
Fund. When our active money raising 
-ampaign commences, probably this fall, 

iteration purposes go directly into this 
'und, and are spent with great care. Each 

outgoing check must be signed by Mr. return to California and to the California 
filler and an officer of the Historical Com- State Park System, to read your letter of 
i^ittee. Each donation is tax exempt. April 11, and the attached plan for restor- 

John Anson Ford has been serving since ation of the structures at the Los Angeles 
he beginning, on our Committee— as well State and County Arboretum. Since I was 
IS on the Arboretum Foundation Board. 

3e is valuable as an interpreter to his fel- Arcadia in World War I, the subject has £ 
ow County Supervisors, explaining our 
Problems and progress. In many ways Mr. 
'ord contributes to the congeniality and 

influence. 




STORIAL COMMITTEE: MEMBERSHIP 
SUB-COMMITTEES 



water & Power Dept. gnl^JiS 




Lasca Leaves 





MEMBERSHIP 

Annual Associate Membership $ 

Annual Membership 

Annual Contributing Membership. 

Annual Sustaining Membership 

Annual Sponsor Membership.. : 

Life Membership ... : 

Founders 1000.00 or 

Benefactors 5000.00 or 

Club Memberships are available, at any amour 
from $10 a year or more. 

All Contributions Deductible Under 
Federal Income Tax Law.- 



Cherks should be made payable to the California Arboretum 
Vouudation. Inc.. and sent to our headquarters at 291 North 
Old K.vnh Road. Arcadia, Calif. Phone DOuglas 7-3444. 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum 
operated by California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., 
non-profit corporation. The Foundation is developing ai 
managing the Arboretum under an agreement with t. 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Title to ti 
120 acres of property is in the State of California, whi 
has leased it to Los Angeles County for fifty years. 
Construction operations are actively commenced by tl 



plan of the foundation prepared by Harry 
Because of safety hazards the Arboretum is c 
public during construction. 



asca 
c/eaves 



Annual Report 
1950-51 



Autumn 1951 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



Dr. F. W. Went President 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr Vice-President 

Mrs. Franklin Booth / Vice-President 

Howard A. Miller Treasurer 



Manchester Boddy 
Robert Casamajor 
Ralph D. Cornell 
Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin. 

J. F. Douglas 
Mrs. Thomas Fleming 
William Hertrich 
John C. Macfarland 
Samuel B. Mosher 
Mrs. William D. Shearer 
John Anson Ford, Ex-Officio 

{Founded Through the Efforts of the 
Southern California Horticultural Institute) 

LOS ANGELES ^c™t^'* ARBORETUM 
STAFF 

Dr. R. J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding... Superintendent 

W. QuiNN Buck..... Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Dewey E. Nelson Custodian 

ThELMA G. BLANCHARD Secretjry 

Jani;t Wright Deicher 



LASCA LBAViS 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES sxATE^n^ ARBORETUM 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. PUBLICATION 

R. J. Seibert, Editor 

VOL. I OCTOBER, 1951 X<> > 



ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP MEETING 

CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 

Message of President, Frits W. Went 
Delivered June 12, 1951 



Ladies and Gentlemen, are that in the interests of proper develop- 




ANNUAL REPORT 1950-51 




5ible. 



[•lety 



of photographs of s] 
as many of the plants 
search file mentioned al 
I photographs will be c 



typic 



, Extei 
librar 

mce, and propag; 
^The pi; 



try, U. S. D. A., has furnished plantinf 
material of Strophnnthu.^ and other poten 
tial cortisone-producing plants for oui 
testmg and experimental planting in thi: 
region. 

2. The U. S. Soil Conservation Service 



Dr. Samuel Ayres 
Mr. Robert Casamajor 
Mr. Ralph D. Cornell 
Mr. William Hertrich 
Mr. Howard A. Miller 
Dr. Russell J. Seibert, ex 

Library Committee: 

Mr. Robert Casamajor. C 
Mr. William Hertrich 
Mr. John C. Macfarland 
Dr. Philip Munz 
Dr. Russell J. Seibert, ex 

Publications Committee: 
Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin, C 
Mr. Robert Casamajoi 



1 Hertrich 



Dr. Ru 



lip Coi 



Mrs. Thomas Fleming 
Mrs. Ross K. Boore 
Mr. & Mrs. G. Buffun- 
Mr. Robert Casamajc 
Mrs. George Coates 
Mrs. A. Ray Jewel 



Mr. & Mrs. G. Simpson 
Mr. Leonard Strater 
Mrs. W. J. Van Valkenbi 
Mr. & Mrs. A. B. Young 



ing on the Arboretum grounds. 

The Los Angeles Flood Control Dis- 
: has furnished Max.-Min. thermometer 

rain gauge for official observation of 



Mr. Samuel B. Mosher 

Mr. Francis Moulton 

Mr. George J. O'Brien 

Mr. Stuart O'Melveny 

Mr. Chester A. Rude 
listorical Committee: 

A complete report of the Hi: 
:ommittee, chaired by Mrs. Rich 
)akin, appeared in the Summer 
isue of Lasca Lea\^s. 



certain species for the Financial Report 



y Department, U. C. L. 
nge of surplus plant m 
rative growth potential 



$43,550.00 
3,985.00 
650.00 
800.00 



'F!w^We' 



Radio & Televisii 
Dr. Russell J. 
Arboretum, has I 



Hottes, Alfred C. 
Howard, James 
Imle, Ernest P., Dr., Co; 
Kennedy, F. E. 
Long, F. R. 



During the past year 28 talks were giver 
)y members of the Arboretum staff. O: 
hese talks Dr. Seibert gave 17; Mr. Spald 
ng 12; and Mr. Nelson 4. All of these talki 



Foundation was started in October 

). 

ews Letter — August 1950 and Decern 
1950. 

-Twelve from July 1 



1950 to June 30, 1951. 
Kxchange Publicati 
We have establis 



, Mr. John C. 
Mr. E. W. 
& Mrs. Albert 



Nolan, Mrs. Gladys 



Shearer, Mrs. William 
Simonson, L. N., Dr. 
Spalding, George H. 



, E. W., Dr. 
, Frits, Dr. 
row, J. F. D. 



Costa Rica Puerto 
Scotland 

Gifts of Plants and Seeds 
Received by the Arboretum : 

Valuable contributions of 
plants have been received fro 
'owm_g individuals, organizatio 



rpenter. Earl 



Hans Gubler, Switzerland 

Howard Johnson Nursery 

Los Angeles County Nursery 

Oakhurst Gardens 

San Diego City Nursery 

South Gate Garden Club 

U S D A Federal Experiment Station, 

Mayaguez, P. R. 
U S D A Plant Introduction Station, 

Beltsville, Md. 
U S D A Rubber Station, 

Turrialba, Costa Rica 
U S D A Soil Conservation Departmen 
■ ■ " aide Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, 



Ausi 

Huntington Botanical Ga: 



)r. G. W. 

5, 123 pamphlets 

, Dr. Miriam L. 



Quattlebaum, W. Dan 

1 set "Birds of California," 2 books, 
1 pamphlet 
Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden 

"El Aliso," Vol. 2, No. 3 
Sauer, Dr. Jonathan 

Author's thesis "The Grain 

Seibert, Dr. Russell J. 

1 book, 150 misc. papers & pamphlets 
Smithsonian Institution 

National Herbarium "Contributions" 
14 

Spalding, George H. 



12 1 



Mr. C. H. 



Cook, Mrs. William M. 



Evans, Hugh 

12 South African periodicals 
Evans & Reeves Nursery 
Faw?et?^Ja??^" '"^^^ Grapevin 

"Desert Magazine," 1950 compl 
Fosberg, Dr. F. R. 

19 pamphlets, author's reprints 
Foster, Mulford B. 

1 book, 4 pamphlets 
Giridlian, J. M. 

1 set "Ferns: British and Exot 
8 vols., and 2 books 

Gray, Miss Dorothy 

2 issues "The Fuchsian" 
Hagen, 'Willard 

100 periodicals 
Hodge, W. H. 



Walker, Winslc 

3 pamphle 
Went, Dr. F. 



hard, Dr. M. L.) 
, Dr. Frans 

271 pamphlets 



Miscellaneous Gifts Recei 
Arboretum During the Pi 
(exclusive of money donations) 
Automobile Club of Southern i 
3000 maps for garden tour 



)wer Magazi 
ed by the 



Frontic 



■ Plan 



Jllection of 391 virater color sketches 
and pen and ink drawings by the 
late Charles Broughton; a self por- 
trait of Mr. Broughton. This collec- 
tion is designated as the Charles 
and Josephine Broughton Memorial 



(KrSebe?g P^s^^ ^' 

Mathias, br^ Miidred" ^^^"^ 

Union List of Botanical B( 
1*^ .r^^"^'^!^^^^ Southern i 
McVaugh, Dr. Rogers 



^Richard^y"^ 



Kruckeberg Press 

6000 tickets for Garden Tour 
Red Star Fertilizer Company 
Mrs. Mi'ra^ slnndelT^'' 

Photographs of papaya trees 
Dr. Russell J. Seibert 
Tv/r ^^^^ California Pepper 
Mr. Ellis Smith, County of Los 

1 hotographs of Arboretum 



MEMBERSHIP OF CALIFORNIA 

ANNUAL 

Adams. Charles Gibbs 
Ahmanson, Mrs. H. F. 
Altadena Garden Club 
Alhambra Community Garden Club 



•cadia Leona Club 



ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, Inc. 

Hoe Club, The 

Holloway, Mr. & Mrs. Homer T. 



Hollywood Hortici 
Home Garden Grc 
Inter-County Garc 



, Mrs. 



Kirkley, Mrs. R. W. 
Kohl, Matha, M.D. 
Landscaping Society of Southci 
Las Jardineras 
Lawndale Garden Club 
Leonard, Robert Z. 
Lindroth, Eric, M.D. 
Littlefield, J. J. 

Little Garden Club of Pasaden; 



^nt, H. Stanley 

-rgstrom, Mr. & Mrs. Harr 

overly Hills Garden Club 



ultfsode 
allande: 



ajor, Dr. Louis 
uaspers, R. W. 
Civic Center Garden ( 
Clapp, Mrs. James N. 
Clark, Lucy Mason 
Coflin, Dr. & Mrs. Hai 
Colby. H. F. 
C'jllc.ye Women's Clul 

C|||Hei\''FrankT 

Co(,k, Mrs" William M. 



Los Angeles County Medical Garde 

Los Angeles Flora Study Club 

Los Feliz Woman's Club— Garden S 

Lowman, C. L., M.D. 

Macfarland, John C. 

MacMillan, Douglas A. 

Mage, Mrs. John R. 

Michillinda Community Woman's C 

Miller, Hyman, M.D. 

Miller,' Richard David, M.D. 
Moeller, Mr. and Mrs. Ben 
Monrovia Foothill Garden Club 

Moorei Mrs. Anson C. 
Morgan, Dr. M. Evan 
Mothershead, Mrs. M. W. 
Mudd, Mrs. Seeley G. 
Munro, Mrs. William B. 
McCoy, Mrs. Lester 
McGah, Mr. and Mrs. J. T. 
National Fuchsia Society of Americ 

Hollywood Branch 
National Fuchsia Society of Americ 



H. M., Jr. 
Club 
an K. 

[rs. John E. 



udubon Society 



Rhodes, Mrs. Joseph F. 
Rhodes, Mr. and Mrs. Kenne 
Romanaux, Raoul 



Schuchardt, Wil 
Schwarz, Marquard 
Scofield, Mr. & Mrs. George N. 
Scott, Paul 

Seeders & Weeders Garden Club 
Seibert, Mr. & Mrs. Erwin W. 
Seibert, Dr. & Mrs. Russell J. 



nider, Mr. & Mrs. H. M. 
3uth Pasadena, The Garden 
iuthern California Camellia 
)uthern California Horticulti 



Stoody, M 
Temple C: 



5. H., M.D. 



., Llo 



s Clu 



Van Valkenburgh, Mrs. W. J. 
Wellborn, Mrs. Leila 
Wellbourn, Dr. & Mrs. O. C. 
Went, Dr. Frits W. 
Wilson, Ray 



Zimmerman, Robert 
ANNUAL ASSOCIATE 



, Hugh 



Thomas, Mrs. Robert G. 
Thorpe, Mr. & Mrs. Ben 
Thorpe, Mr. Charles H. 



Verbeck, Harry J. 
Von Schlegell, Abigail 
Watson, Mrs. Leigh F. 



lite,' Mrs'^cfeori 



ANNUAL CONTRIBUTING 

Bailey, Wii 



. Harr^ 

Franl 

, Mrs. She 



Hoyt 



Brehm, Mrs. J. ^. 
Campbell, Mrs. Robert W 
Casamajor, Mr. Robert 
Chandler, Norman 
Chevy Chase Estates Garden Club 
Coolidge Rare Plant Gardens 
Cornell, Ralph D. 
Davies, F. Wesley 
Dreyfuss, Henry 
Harris Newmark Co rh^s 



Ojai Valley Garden Club 



, C. K. 

'ler, Mrs. Oscar 
Millan, Mrs. Douglas 



Nolan: Mrs John F 
Owens, Elta C. 
Peer, Mr. Ralph 
Pinkham, Mrs. Roy , 
Reed, Joseph 



Shea 



lo Garden Club 



:on, Mrs.' Forr, 



e Garden Club 
ANNUAL SUSTAINING 
Douglas, Mr. J. F 
O^Brien^George J. 

FOUNDER 

Menninger, Mr. & Mrs. E. W. 
Verdoorn, Dr Frans 
LIFE 

Ayres, Samuel Jr., M.D. 
Ayres, Mrs. Samuel, Jr. 
Bodger, Mr. John C. 
Dakin, Mrs. Richard Y. 
Flemmg, Mrs. Thomas 
Meyberg, Manfred 
Mosher, Samuel B 
Patterson, Mrs. Theresa Home 
Verdoorn, Mrs. J. G. 



MEMBERSHIP 



Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders 1000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5000.00 or more 



Club Memberships are available, at any amount, 
from $10 a year or more. 

All Contributions Deductible Under 
Federal Income Tax Law.- 



Checks s/jouU be made payable to the Calif on^ia Arboretum 
VoimdMion. Inc.. and sent to our headquarters at 291 North 
Old Ranch Rn.id. Aradia. Calif. Phone DOuglas 7-3444. 

nnii.,i;,,,is fnr Hi.^/ny.u jl Restoratiotis should he made pay- 
Mc to (\d,inynu Arhnretum Foundation. Inc.. Hi'storical 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum is 
operated by California Arboretiim Foundation, Inc., a 
non-profit corporation. The Foundation is developing and 
managing the Arboretum under an agreement with the 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Title to the 
120 acres of property is in the State of California, which 
has leased it to Los Angeles County for fifty years. 
Construction operations are actively commenced by the 
County of Los Angeles in accordance with the master 
plan of the Foundation. Because of safety hazards the 
Arboretum is closed to the public during construction. 



1 





WmBR1952 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 

Dr. F. W. Went President 

Dr. Samuf.l Ayres, Jr Vice-President 



Manchester Boddy Mrs. Thomas Fleming 

Robert Casamajor William Hertrich 

Ralph D. Cornell John C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel B. Moshcr 
J. F. Douglas Mrs. William D. Shearer 

John Anson Ford, Ex-Ofpao 

HONORARY TRUSTEES 

Mrs. J. E. Harton 
Charles S. Jones 
Fred W. Roewekamp 
Roy F. Wilcox 
{Founded Through the Efforts of the 
Southern Caltforma Horticultural Institute) 

LOS ANGELES ARBORETUM 

STAFF 

Dr. R. J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah piant Recorder 

Dewev E. Nelson ; Custod,an 

Thelma G. Blanchard Secretary 

Janet Wright Deicher Research 

and Library (Part time) 



LASCA LEAVES 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES ^l^Zlr'y ARBORETUM 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. PUBLICATION 




MEMBERSHIP 



Annual Associate Membership | 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders 1000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5000.00 or more 



Club Memberships are available, at any amount, 
from S 10 a year or more. 

All Contributions Deductible Under 
Federal Income Tax Law- 



Checks should be made payable to the California Arboretum 
Foundation, Inc., and sent to our headquarters at 291 North 
Old Ranch Road, Arcadia, Calif. Phone DOuglas 7-3444. 
Donations for Historical Restorations should be made pay- 
able to California Arboretum Foundation, hic. Historical 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum is 
operated by California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., a 
non-profit corporation. The Foundation is developing and 
managing the Arboretum under an agreement with the 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Title to the 
120 acres of property is in the State of California, which 
has leased it to Los Angeles County for fifty years. 
Construction operations are actively commenced by the 
County of Los Angeles in accordance with the master 
plan of the Foundation. Because of safety hazards the 
Arboretum is closed to the public during construction. 
Interested clubs may arrange for group conducted tours 
of the grounds by calling the Arboretum Office, DOuglas 
7-3444. 



asca 



erne. 



^ Plants Suitable 
for 

Parking Lot Plantings 
in 

Los Angeles 
CivicdSi^^5\ATea 




BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC 

Dr. F. W. Went President 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr Vice-President 

Howard A. Miller Treasurer 

Mrs. Lawrence Barker J. F. Douglas 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer Mrs. Thomas Fleming 

Manchester Boddy William Hertrich 

Robert Casamajor John C. Macfarland 

Ralph D. Cornell Samuel B. Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Mrs. William D. Shearer 
John Anson Ford, Ex-Officio 

HONORARY TRUSTEES 
Mrs. J. E. Harton 
Charles S. Jones 
Fred W. Roewekamp 
Roy F. Wilcox 
{Founded Through the Efforts of the 
Southern California Horticultural Institute) 

LOS ANGELES ^^^^ ARBORETUM 
STAFF 

Dr. R. J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Louis B. Martin Research Assistant 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Dewey E. Nelson Custodian 

Thelma G. Blanchard Secretary 

Janet Wright Research 

and Library (Part time) 



MEMBERSHIP 



Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders 1000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5000.00 or more 



Club Memberships are available, at any amount, 
from $10 a year or more. 

All Contributions Deductible Under 
Federal Income Tax Law; 



Checks should he made payable to the California Arboretum 
Foundation, Inc., and sent to our headquarters at 291 North 
Old Ranch Road, Arcadia, Calif. Phone DOuglas 7-3444. 
Donations for Historical Restorations should be made pay- 
^W^^/o California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., Historical 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum is 
operated by California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., a 
non-profit corporation. The Foundation is developing and 
managing the Arboretum under an agreement with the 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Title to the 
120 acres of property is in the State of California, which 
has leased it to Los Angeles County for fifty years. 
Construction operations are actively commenced by the 
County of Los Angeles in accordance with the master 
plan of the Foundation. Because of safety hazards the 
Arboretum is closed to the public during construction. 
Interested clubs may arrange for group conducted touis 
of the grounds by calling the Arboretum Office, DOuglas 



LASCA LEAVtS 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES ^^$^1^ INC 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 
PUBLICATION 

R. J. Seibert, EJilor 



PLANTS SUITABLE FOR PARKING LOT PLANTINGS IN LOS ANGELES CIVIC CENTER AREA 

' GROWTH - 



GROWTH HABIT 



FLOWER COLOR 



PLANTING 1 
AREA I 
WmTH) PLANTING DISTANCE^ 



'illiijfl;ni5|||Jlliii||j||l||||H 



SPECIES 

Acacia baileyana 
tAcacia podalyriaefolia 



Ailanthus altissima 
Arctotis acaulis (Hybrids) 
Baileya multiradiata 

•Bougainvillea "San Diego ] 
CaUistemon lanceolatus 
Cercis siliquastrum & spp. 

'Chamaerops humilis 

Chrysanthemum maximum 

Cist us crispus 

Clytostoma callistegioides 

Crassula arborescens 

Cupania anacardioides 
Cupressus arizonica 
tDodonea viscosa 
tDodonea viscosa purpurea 
Elaeagnus pxmgens 



'liryttiea edu^s 

* Eucalyptus citriodora 
Eucalyptus crucis 

*Eucalyptus leucoxylon rosea 

* Eucalyptus macrandra 
Eucalyptus polyanthemos 
Eucalyptus pulverulenta 

•Eucalyptus sideroxylon paUens 
*Ficus (nitida) retusa 
Ficus pumila 
Gazania (Mixed Hybrids) 
*Ginkgo bUoba (Male, fastigiate form) 
Hemerocallis (Evergreen Species) 
Lantana sellowiana 
Leptospermum laevigatum 
Libocedrus decurrens 
*Limoniuin Perezii 
Magnolia grandiflora 
Melaleuca leucadendron 
Melaleuca styphelioides 
Melia Azederach umbraculiformis 
ferium oleander 
Opuntia (Spineless forms) 
t*Pandorea pandorana 
Parkinsonia aculeata 
Phaedranthus buccinatorius 
*Phoenix dactylifera 
*Phonnium tenax (all forms) 
Pittosporum tobira 
Pittosporum undulatim 
Podocarpus elongatus 
*Prunus lyoni 

Pyracantha (Select Varieties) 
Rosa "Mermaid" 
Senecio angulatus 
Spartixun junceum 
Solanum jasminoides 
Tecomaria ran^«.i„ 



*Trachycarpu 
*Washingtoni 



robusta 



PREPARED BY 

STAFF OF LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM 

With acknowledgment to the following collaborators: 
Philip E. Chandler Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Mildred Davis Peggy Sullivan 

Donald P. WooUey 



COMMON NAME 

Bailey Acacia 
Pearl Acacia 
Frosty Wattle 
Golden Wattle 
Golden Wreath Wattle 
Hairy Wattle 
Winter- sweet 
Bushman's Poison 

Tree of Heaven 
Bushy Arctotis 
Desert Baileya 

Crimson Bottlebrush 
Judas Tree 
Hairpalm 
Shasta Daisy 
Wrinkleleaf Rockrose 
Violet Trumpetvine 

Silver Crassula 

Giant Hop -bush 
Purple Hop -bush 
Silver berry 
Organ Escallonia 
Guadalupe Palm 
River Red Gum 
Lemon Scented Gum 
Silver MaUee 
Pink- flowered White wood 
Longstamen Eucalyptus 
Redbox Eucalyptus 
Silver Mountain Gum 
Pink- flowered Ironbark 
Indialaxirel Ficus 
Climbing Fig 

Maidenhair Tree 
Daylily 

Trailing Lantana 
Australian Teatree 
Incense Cedar 
Perez Statice 
Bullbay 
Cajeput Tree 
Prickly Paperbark 
UmbreUa Chinaberry 



DISPLAY VALUE 



! Florii 



Tuna 

Wongavine 
Jerusalemthorn 
Bloodtrumpet 
Datepalm 

New Zealand Flax 
Tobira Pittosporum 
California Mockorani 
Fern Podocarpus 
Catalina Cherry 
Firethom 
Mermaid Rose 
Senecio 

Spanish Broom 
White Potato Vine 
Cape Honeysuckle 
Windmill Palm 
Mexican Fanpalm 
Shiny Xylosma 
Glossy Yucca 



X X 

X 

XXX 




X X X X 
X X X X X 



XX X X X X 



X X X X 
X X X X 
XXX 



I Gray foliage, yellow flowers 

Showy, yellow, fragrant flowers 

Showy, large, yellow flowers 

Weeping shrub 

Bronze, evergreen foliage 

Bronze, evergreen foliage 

Succulent, green foliage, yellow flowers 

Colorful seedpods 

BriUiant flowers 

Gray foliage, woolly, yellow, showy 
Bright red flowers 
Ornamental small tree 
Spring bloom 
Tropical foliage 

Very large white Daisy flowers 
Good foliage— bloom 
Evergreen vine foliage for fences 
Succulent shiny gray foliage Winter fl. 
Succulent shiny green foliage Winter fl. 
Clean evergreen foliage, neat form 
Pale green conifer 
Evergreen, Lt. gr. foliage 
Evergreen, Plum-colored foliage 
Silver gray-green foliage 
Dense foliage, pink flowers 
Specimen palm 



One of f 
Late sp] 



Flowers fragram 
Very tolerant of 
Very tolerant, si 



ther root competition 
iit red & showy. Latex poisonous 
ait red & showy. Latex poisonous 
avorable conditions 

i light pruning 



One of the hardiest Bougainvilleas, easj 
Full sun; drought and alkali tolerant. 
Stands some shade 
Tolerant 

Divide every three to four years 
Arid loving; good filler for poor soils 
Stands shade and north walls, also sui 
Very tough 

Stands smog 
Very tolerant 
Untried but £ 
Untried but s 
Very tough 



aluable — decorative fn 



Clingmg evergreer 
Colorful flowers 
X Fall foliage color, 
Yellow bloom 
Abundant bloom 
Interesting form, 



water until established 
ilored effect, voracious r 
t easy to propagate 



Good g 

Ling branching Very t 



Excellent ground and I 



flowers Slow growing 
, frag, foliage Very tolerant 



Interesting papery bark— flowers 
Umbrella form small tree 
Summer flowers, varying colors 
Interesting form, showy red fruit, e 
Evergreen glossy foliage vine 



Orange -red trumpet flowers 
Tropical feather palm. 
Strap-like foliage, tropical < 
Dark green accent. Berries 
Fragrant bloom, colorful fi 
Pendulous habit, fine ever 
Durable evergreen foliage 
Winter berries, spring tlov 



,nd Flowers 



Shrub or tn 
Hot dry loc 
Likes water 
Hot, dry co 
Colorful for 
Easily grow, 
Quite tough 

Clean, neat; subject to A 
Useful as shrub or tree 



Withstands abuse 



Succulent foliage, yellow flowers 
Broom-like foliage, yellow-pea flow 
Winter flowers 
Orange-red flowers 



and pruning, Espalier, good barrier hedge 



I drought loving 



Fence and bank cover 
Slow growing, long live 
Very resistant of unfavc 
Excellent low masking s 

Very tolerant 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 

Dr. F. W. Went ... President 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr Vice-President 

Howard A. Miller Treasurer 

Mrs. Lawrence Barker J. F. Douglas 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer Mrs. Thomas Fleming 

Manchester Boddy William Hertrich 

Robert Casamajor John C. Macfarland 

Ralph D. Cornell Samuel B. Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Mrs. William D. Shearer 
John Anson Ford, Ex-Officio 

HONORARY TRUSTEES 

Mrs. J.-E. Harton 
Charles S. Jones 
Fred W. Roewekamp 
Roy F. Wilcox 



J OS ANGELES ^^(^Ji^l^'' ARBORETUM 
STAFF 

Dr. R. J. SriBiRi. . D/ieilof 

Gi'ORGE H. Spalding Superintendent 

Louis B. Martin lieseanb Assistant 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah PUnt Recorder 

DrwEY E. Nelson Custodian. 



Thelma G. Bi 

J AN IT WrIOH! 



Secretary 



and Library (Fart 
STAl'f- 



LASCA LEAVES 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES ^J^7l^'l' ARBORETUM 



COLD RESISTANCE OF SUBTROPICAL ORNAMENTALS 

Vkrnon T. Stoutemeyer 
Division of Floriculture and Ornamental Horticulture 
College of Agriculture, University of California— Los Angeles 

Little published information is available vicinity of West Los Angeles during the 
regarding the cold resistance of many of winters of 1947-48 and 1948-49 have been 
the more tender plants cultivated in the recorded in considerable detail by Hodg- 



ny locations, temperatures 



In the first season, on December 30-31, 
minimum temperatures of 28 were re- 
corded, and 24.5 F. on January 27-28. The 

prolonged duration of the temperatures 
and the unusually low dew points. How- 
ever, the rainfall was relatively light prior 

fairly good condition to undergo low tem- 



good opportunity to observe 



f that 



changes in eval 



Tvations by Siegel- 
' 1947 and 



,ro ir. were continued until February 2, i» 

ttln? thit vP.r^' The These were made in a large wholes^ 



undated Evans and Reeves Nursery cata- nursery gra 
log" was published shortly after the 1937 ^ 
ireeze. Butterfield'' has given closely sim 
liar evaluations of hardi 



irly by 



The first frost was 

follov-ed by temperatures 
?mber 11, and 24° on De- 
cember 31. From December 31 to Febru- 
ry 2 there were eight nights on which 



of 26° on December 
.stand- TTfrt^ n«n 



;d the plants 
njury, mak- 



was a critical temperature for a great ^he range ot one to tnr 
many of the ornamental plants of South- The freezes of 1948-4C 
ern California, and damage A^as extremely relatively dry period, t 



12 LAA^ ^ L 



TABLE II 




MEMBERSHIP 

inual Associate Membership S 5.00 

mual Membership - 10.00 

inual Contributing Membership 25.00 

mual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

mual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

fe Membership 500.00 

unders 1000.00 or more 

nefactors 5000.00 or more 

Club Memberships are available, at any amount, 
from $10 a year or more. 

All Contributions Deductible Under 
Federal Income Tax Law.- 



Checks should be made payable to the California Arboretum 
Foundation, Inc., and sent to our headquarters at 291 North 
Old Ranch Road, Arcadia, Calif. Phone DOuglas 7-5U4. 
Donations for Historical Restorations should be made pay- 
able to California Arboretum Foundation, Inc.. Historical 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum 
operated by California Arboretum Foundation, Inc.. 
non-profit corporation. The Foundation is developing a 
managing the Arboretum under an agreement with 1 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Title to 1 
120 acres of property is in the State of California, wh 
has leased it to Los Angeles County for fifty years. 
Construction operations are actively commenced by i 

plan of the Foundation. Because of safety hazards ■ 
Arboretum is closed to the public during construct! 
Interested clubs may arrange for group conducted to 
of the grounds by calling the Arboretum Office. DOue 



dasca 
* deaves 



Annual Report 

1951-52^ 




Autumn 1952 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr President 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer Vice-President 

Robert Casamajor Vice-President 

Howard A. Miller Treasurer 

Mrs. Lawrence Barker William Hertrich 
Manchester Boddy John C. Macfarland 

Ralph D. Cornell Samuel B. Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Mrs. WiUiam D. Shearer 
J. F. Douglas Dr. Frits W. Went 

Mrs. Thomas Fleming 

John Anson Ford, Ex-OfiScio 
HONORARY TRUSTEES 
Mrs. J. E. Harton ' 
Charles S. Jones 
Fred W. Roewekamp 
Roy F. Wilcox 
{Founded Through the Efforts of the 
Southern California Horticultural Institute) 

LOS ANGELES ^^^S^^ ARBORETUM 
STAFF 

Dr. R. J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Louis B. Martin Research Assistant 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Dewey E. Nelson Custodian 

Thelma G. Blanchard ^ Secretary 

Janet Wright Research 

and Library (Part time) 
HONORARY STAFF 

Maurice Block Director of Restorations 

Dr. George P. Lux Curator, Lux Arboretum Annex 

W. Dan Quattlebaum Ornithological Consultant 



LASCA LEAVES 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES ARBORETUM 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. PUBLICATION 

R. J. Seibert, Editor 

VOL. II OCTOBER, 1952 No. 4^ 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 
Annual Membership Meeting June 17, 1952. 
ANNUAL REPORT 1951-52 

deal of^^work^hL ^been^accomplisLd^^^^ ^on^ of ^the^ CounV^BorrT of Supervisors, 
ward^ basically improving the grounds of Arcadia City Offidals^and^ residents^of 

CONSTRUCTION: brinS^ sSdw^n Avlnue'^^ 

th^ ground?of \lie^A?bore^^^ the HORTICULTURAL PROGRAM: 

last June^ l^gS^L^from The °950°5f ^capital yelr^Amo^ng'^eed*^^'^'^ 



udget. The work consisted outstanding collections from Aust 
image facilities, paving of the 5^^^^ Africa, Puerto Rico, Java, 
Argentina. 
A fine collection of Orchid plant; 



sprinkltr syste 



Board of Superivsors of the 
Los Angeles has let contracts 
ting $130,000.00. This work 
grading the rest of the major 



and on the southeast side of the Arbore- go^^into^ permanent plantings ^this comii 

sewage line in north acres, grading of appearance of portions of the groun 

future building sites, and the construe- where capital improvement work h 

t^ion of lath house units. The work has been completed. 

Master Plan for the Arboretum. siderably expanded and include a nur 

BALDWIN AVENUE- ber of plants of promise for extensive u 

Future permanent access to the Arbo- i" Southern California, 

return grounds according to the Master The addition to the Foundation of tl 

Plan has passed its most critical mile- Lux Arboretum Annex, in MonrovJ 

stone during this past year. Through the through donation by Dr. G. P. Lux h 

"magnificent work of the County Board of considerably expanded our horticultur 

Supervisors, and in particular Honorable facilities and wealth of plant materia 

Herbert C. Legg, Baldwin Avenue has Over 1100 United States Department 

become an accomplished fact. The Trus- Agriculture introductions alone have be( 

tees of the Arboretum Foundation are in- gathered together over the past 35 yea 



MEMBERSHIP 



Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders 1000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5000.00 or more 



Club Memberships are available, at any amount, 
from $10 a year or more. 

All Contributions Deductible Under 
Federal Income Tax Law; 



Cf>ecks should be made payable to the California Arboretum 
Foundation, Inc., and sent to our headquarters at 291 North 
Old Ranch Road, Arcadia, Calif. Phone DOuglas 7-3444. 
Donations for Historical Restorations should be made pay- 
able to California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., Historical 
Fund. 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum is 
operated by California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., a 
non-profit corporation. The Foundation is developing and 
managing the Arboretum under an agreement with the 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Title to the 
120 acres of property is in the State of California, which 
has leased it to Los Angeles County for fifty years. 
Construction operations are actively commenced by the 
County of Los Angeles in accordance with the master 
plan of the Foundation. Because of safety hazards the 
Arboretum is closed to the public during construction. 
Interested clubs may arrange for group conducted tours 
of the grounds by calling the Arboretum Office, DOuglas 
7-3444. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATIONS, INC. 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr President 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer Vice-President 

Rcbert Casamajor Vice-President 

Howard A. Miller . ' Treasurer 

Mrs. Lawrence Barker William Hertrich 



Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Mrs. William D. Shea] 
Mrs. Thomas Fleming Dr. Frits W. Went 
John Anson Ford, Ex-Officio 

HONORARY TRUSTEES 
Mrs. J. E. Harton 
Charles S. Jones 
Fred W. Roewekamp 
Roy F. Wilcox 
{Fo.'wcled Through the Ejforls of the 

LOS ANGELES ^I^Z^^if ARBORETUM 
STAFI- 

Dr. R. j. Seibi.kt Dnec 

George H. Spauiini, Snptynitend 

Louis B. Martin Rc\ej)ih Assist. 

W. QuiNN Buck Profuni^u 

J. Thomas McGah.. PLwI Re.ou 

Dewey E. Nelson.. CuUod 

Thelma G. Blanchard Sei)et 

Janet Wright Restu 



and Uh 
HONORARY STAFF 



LASCA LEAVES 

Quarterly Journal of the 
LOS ANGELES ARBORETUM 
A CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. PUBLICATION 

R. J. Seibert, Editor 

VOL. Ill JANUARY, 1953 No. 1 




4 



^ MEXICAN FAN PALM ^ 
W48HINQTONIA R0BU8TA 
LOWER CALIF.&80N0RAN92 




NOVEMBER PROMISE 

H. H. Benson 




ACACIA VESTITA 




MEMBERSHIP 

Annual Associate Membership 

Annual Membership 

Annual Contributing Membership 

Annual Sustaining Membership 

Annual Sponsor Membership 

Life Membership 



lilable. 



The Los Angeles State and County Arboretum is 
operated by California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., a 

managing the Arboretum under an agreement with the 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Title to the 
120 acres of property is in the State of California, which 
has leased it to Los Angeles County for fifty years. 
Construction operations are actively commenced by the 
County of Los Angeles in accordance with the master 
plan of the Foundation. Because of safety hazards the 
Arboretum is closed to the public during construction. 
Interested clubs may arrange for group conducted tours 
of the grounds by calling the Arboretum Office, DOuglas 



Jasca 
Maves 

as the Official Publication of the 

Southern California Horticultural Institute 
and the 

California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

MAS 20 1968 j SPRING 1953 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



Officers 1953 

President Fred W. Roewekamp 

Vice-President Ralph H. Cornell 

Secretary GeoRGE H. Spalding 

Treasurer Kenneth Bishop 



William Beresford Earle E. Humphries 

Manchester Boddy Mildred E. Mathias 

Howard Bodger Alfred W. Roberts 

Phillip Chandler Vernon S. Stoutemeyi 

Percy C. Everett Ronald B. Townsend 

Richard Westcott 



Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNeil 

Robert Casamajor Manfred Meyberg 

Henry R. Davis Lovell Swisher, Jr. 

Hugh Evans Roy F. Wilcox 



Annual Mcm 
Associate (f 



Life Membership 500.00 year 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each vienibersbip class. 

Meetings: 3rd Thursday each month at Park and Recreation Buildin 
18th and Toberman Streets, Los Angeles, California 



LASCA LEAVES 



Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Phillip Chandler Philip A. Munz 

William Hertrich Russell J. Seibert 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Dr. Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California — Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Dr. Russell J. Seibert 

Geo botany, and Plant Patents Dr. Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemeyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Phillip Chandler 

Plant Pathology Dr. Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies , George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. Quinn Buck 

Succulents Dr. Alfred C. Hottes 

Taxonomy of Exotics Dr. Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Dr. Philip A. Munz 

Janet Wright, EJ/toy 

Vol. Ill APRIL, 19^^ 2 

CONTENTS 

Southern California, "The Paradi.se of America". .Samuel Ayres, Jr. 10 

Expanding Our Horticultural Horizons Fred W. Roewekamp 11 

California International Flower Show Fred W. Roewekamp 12 

• We"— the Editor 15 

The Homesite on Rancho Santa Anita Susanna Bryant Dakin 16 

Aloes William Hertrich 17 

Hugh Evans: Plantsman Cora R. Brandt 25 

Calendar ! . . . 28 

Growing Notes George H. Spalding 29 

The Song of the Exhibitor S. Reynolds Hole 30 

Names, Notes and News 31 

Book Reviews and Comments 32 



10 



LASCA LEAVES 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, 
"THE PARADISE OF AMERICA" 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

California Horticultrnal histitt/te for the purpose oi publishing an augmented Lasca 
Leaves, looks forward with anticipation to a new era of expanding interest in horticul- 
ture in Southern California. 

Since the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum was established through the 
efforts of the Institute in fulfillment of one of its major objectives, and since the activi- 

draw upon the^talents and resources of both groups in the publication of a first-class 
horticultural journal appealing to the interests and needs of this climatically unique area 
of the United States. 

As President of the Board of Trustees of California Arborefum Foundation, Inc., I 
extend greetings to all readers of Lasca Leaves and cordially invite you to become 
permanent subscribers and members of the Arboretum. The Editor will have more to 
say regarding the specific plans for Lasca Leaves, and I am quite certain that no one 

want to miss a single^issue. ^ ^ , ^ , 

For those readers who arc not already members of the Arboretum, I would say that 
the primary purpose in creating the Arboretum was to establish a botanic garden which 
would serve as a practical demonstration to all Southern California of the ornamental 
plants which can be successfully grown in this area, including both old and new intro- 
ductions, to the end that more beauty will find its way into our gardens, our parks, and 
along our streets and about our public buildings. With the proper selection and planting 
of suitable flowering trees and shrubs, an effect could be created which would compare 
favorably with the glamour of Hawaii, "The Paradise of the Pacific," and which could 
easily earn for Southern California the title of "Paradise of America." Most of those 
living in this area were not born here but came from regions of severe winters. Instead 
of yearning for the plants of "back east" which in many instances are not especially 
suited to this climatic zone, they should be stimulated to desire the more colorful and 
exotic plants which can be grown easily in Southern California and which can make 
this area distinctly and beautifully different from any other part of the country. 

Over the years many fine new species of plants have been introduced into California 
by private collectors and planted on large estates, only to be lost when the owner died 
or the estate was sold or subdivided. It is anticipated that the Arboretum will become a 
permanent living exhibition of the best ornamental plants from all over the world 

The plantings in^'the A^-boSum will be arranged both scientifically and artistically in 
natural groupings and will be accurately labelled. Many interesting features are being 
formulated by Dr. Seibert, the Director. 

It is planned to utilize the Arboretum as a horticultural center for Southern Califor- 
nia, and there will be facilities for various plant societies to hold meetings and exhibits. 
A comprehensive horticultural and botanical library and herbarium are being built up. 
A school for gardeners is being planned. A considerable amount of research is already 

emphasis will be placed on the introduction and study of ornamental^ plants with lo* 
water requirements and on the problem of improving frost-tolerance. 

The historical buildings on the property are being restored and will be preserved as 
mementos of the past. The Arboretum constitutes a natural bird sanctuary, and as in the 
past it will in the future continue to interest the Audubon Societies. 



SPRING 1953 11 

It is regretted that the Arboretum must remain closed to the public during the period 
of major construction. It is hoped that within another year or possibly a little more, it 
will be possible to open the grounds. In the meantime groups may be taken on con- 
ducted tours by special arrangements with the Director. 

Finally, although the capital improvements are being financed by the County of Los 
Angeles, there is a great need of additional funds for operation and development and 
for many special projects. Various classes of membership are available and include 
special privileges such as subscription to Lasca Leaves and other publications, par- 
ticipation in the annual distribution of surplus seeds and plants, etc. Donations and 
bequests for special projects and for the Endowment Fund would be most welcome. 

UiiCci Leaves will keep you informed of the progress at the Arboretum and will 
include all that is new and interesting in the world of horticulture in Southern Cali- 
fornia with special articles prepared by experts in their respective fields as well as 



EXPANDING OUR HORTICULTURAL HORIZONS 

Fri:d W. Roevc'kkamp 

President. Southern Caltjornu HorticAturJ btstittae 
On November 6, 1935, a group of men filled with vision and ambition for the cul- 
tural growth of our beautiful Southland, banded together to promote an educational 
program for the advancement of interest in horticulture in Los Angeles communities. 
They realized the wealth of plant material to be brought to the attention of the average 
home-owner for individual pleasure as well as for civic benefit. Thus, quite simply, was 
born the Southern California Horticultural Institute. 

From its small beginning this organization has expanded to other projects, comple- 
menting one another. Much wishful thinking at first was done about a new botanic 
garden in the southland, about flower shows, plant societies, garden clubs, and a 
worthy horticultural publication to serve them all. 

Review of events of the past few years show that much has been accomplished in 
these fields. We are proud to recognize in the California Arboretum Vaimciitto,!. hic. 
a valuable step forward in the field of horticulture, and the publication, Lasca Leaves. 
"^hich they started, is already an inspiration to its readers. 

publication, we anticipate a broadening of both our mutual interests and the creation 
of a wider horizon for its readers. Lasca Leaves should prove to be a common 
meeting ground for the expression and dissemination of horticultural knowledge, and 
distinctly a benefit to members of both institutions. Through it we will learn of new 
work in progress and share the cultural pleasure and profit of being "plant pioneers." 

We who have long been working toward a more beauteous and colorful Southern 
California are well aware of the possibilities of our versatile climate and of the wealth 
of plant material therefore afforded us. And we realize that in our hands lies the horti- 
cultural education of our city residents, as well as the promoting of pride in our city 
beautification program. 

We look forward to the day when the Arboretum can share more fully in this by 
opening its grounds to the public for both enjoyment and educational benefits. Those 
^'ho to some extent are familiar with these grounds pronounce them beautiful ; those 
who have not yet seen them have indeed a treat in store, because of its appeal to nature 
{overs, because of its wonderful possibilities horticulturally, and because of the historic 
'"Merest imbedded there. 

The common goal of helping to create beauty will bring its own reward of happiness 
to all who participate in these combined purposes of the Southern California Horti- 
cultural Institute and California Arboretum Foundation. 



SPRING 1953 



13 



greater in number. Thirty-eight sucl 

land and tropical; patio and outdoc 

planned. Guarantors could only be mem- ing-rooms; bad 

bers in the industry and upward of §180,- homes; water g; 

In 1950 all plans for a second show had viewers' interests. One nursery is con - 

to be abandoned because of a fire that had structing a completely landscaped New 

swept the buildings and grounds. But in England village. 

1951 the structure had been rebuilt and This year the entire floor plan is altered, 
the second show materialized, rivalling the Exhibits are .set in winding walk-ways 
first in both enthusiasm and final success. rather than in long, straight aisles as in 
Each year, the California International the past. This permits designers and land- 
Flower Show must work a miracle in order scajx; architects opportunity to give all 

exposition, and iach year the MoJcr Show tor striking displavs. The first floor of the 

brings forth new wonders. This miracle i. exhibition\vill again house the spectacular 

wrought by men and women who love the gardens, international exhibits, garden 

beauty of flowers and gardens, and wlio dub and floral .society exhibits, private es- 

are willing to devote months of work and tate exhibits, the shopping center, infor- 

planning to make this show one of the mation booth, cafeteria and side-walk 

finest exhibitions in the world. cafe. The Education Group, formerly rep- 



LASCA LEAVES 



blooms, and a number of fully developed 
garden sections illustrating preferred uses 
of varied flowers, shrubs, flowering trees, 
and succulents. 

The ever-popular Shopping Center is 
enlarged considerably this year. A veri- 
table world's fair of garden materials and 



lids, includir 
ieeds and bulbs, tropicals and succulents, 

R'all and fence materials, and decorative 
one and brick work ; plus a photographic 
' ■ • - nd flash- 



upply studio ca: 
lbs as well as 



rying films 



Shopping Center. 

During the evenings, the auditorium 



songs, dances, and costumes of our foreign 
exhibitors. Golden Wedding Day, Ha- 
waiian Night, Garden Fashions, Photog- 
raphers' Day and many more such events 
of past years will be matched by attractions 
of stellar quality. 

The Second Floor of the Flower Show 



of theme. Commercial Growers of Pot 
Plants, 20 classes with highest award 
S300; Commercial Growers of Orchids, 
11 classes with high award of $2,500. 
and a trophy award for excellent plant 
material and skill in display. 
^ For Cut Flowers, the schedule is^for 

lus, iris, daisies, larkspur, snapdragons, 
roses, tulips, bird-of-paradise, ranunculus, 
callas, stocks, delphinum, sweet peas, gen- 
eral displays and miscellaneous flowers, 
118 classes, awards up to $600. The Re- 
tail Florists Division will hold three sepa- 
rate stagings, 64 classes, with awards up to 
$750. for general theme displays. Garden 
Club c^ntries will be divided into garden 



A gold medal will be awarded to the 
most outstanding exhibit in the Retail 
Florists and Cut Flower Growers section. 
Retail Florists will also be awarded 19 
trophies for exceptional merit and design. 

An innovation of this year's show will 
be the awarding of gold medals for the 

bS^Tuf Xwcr'^exhibit i^or'^ finest retail 
flor St display 



vast exhibits of cut flo 



appeal 



irt exhibit yet presented by i 
ding an exhibit of some of the paint- 
of "Grandma Moses." 
^ For the^ benefit of exhibitors, the fol- 

classificltions. For' NurJ!JJymen, Tand-^ 
scape Architects and Landscape Contrac- 
tors, the schedule is divided as follows: 
Landscape Exhibits, 21 classes with two 
top awards of $1,200. A gold medal will 
be awarded to the most outstanding ex- 
hibit and nine trophies will be awarded 
for merit in design and arrangement, cul- 



eding 



inal premiere on the c 
conducted by the 
Southern Californi; 



ng ol 



nefit of 



Inform 
obtainc 



calling the Assistance League office. 

Hollywood Park again provides the set- 
ting for this floral fairyland which will 
once more delight its wide audience. Each 
year the board of directors of the Holly- 
wood Turf Club contribute their total 
facilities to the Flower Show. The show 



SPRING 1953 



15 



remains open from 10:30 a.m. to 10:30 
p.m. through March 22. Admission charge 
is $1.00 for adults, 25c for children, plus 
tax. Public transportation will be provid- 
ed by Los Angeles Transit Company. 

General Chairman of the Show is Roy 
F, Wilcox, noted nurseryman of Monte- 
bello and Santa Barbara; Manfred Mey- 
berg of Los Angeles is executive chairman. 
William A. Rodman has been general 
manager of the Show since its inception. 

192,000; with expectation this year of 
exceeding 200,000. 

The International Flower Show at Hol- 
lywood Park is an annual civic event spon- 
sored by the Southern California Floral 
Association and Southern California 
Horticultural Institute, non-profit organi- 



zations dedicated to the advancement of 
horticulture and floriculture in Southern 
California. It is endorsed by leading civic 




by the Men's Garden Club of Los Angeles, 
an authentic reproduction of the Corona- 
tion Coach to be used by Queen Elizabeth 
at the June Coronation in London. Ex- 
quisitely made in full color, the coach and 
equipage extends 35 feet in length and 
will be complete with eight horses, 18 
costumed attendants and a beautiful figure 
representing the Queen. The background 
setting will depict an English floral scene 
en route from Buckingham Palace to 
Westminster Abbey. 



"We"— the Editor 

"We" ^refers chiefly to the advisory Editorial Committee of six members and to the 

for those individuals who hold^thcm will serve readers of Lascci Leaves much of the 
meat to be offered in future issues. This panel of experts is not a closed corporation. 
PotcntiaUontributors from other parts of the world will be heartily welcomed as well 

ture. Monographic material or sundry writings of cither horticultural or botanical 
interest to Southern California will always receive the careful consideration of editor 
and board ; and is herewith solicited. 

The various departments enjoined to serve the interests of our readers will gradually 
speak for themselves as they are developed into a measurable fund of knowledge and 
information in their respective fields. 

We feel that it is fitting in this first enlarged issue of Lascd Leaves to present three 
feature articles: 1) announcement of the opening of the International Flower Show by 
one who can most authoritatively state its theme and purposes; 2) a brief treatise by the 
senior member of our Editorial Committee, Mr. William Hertrich, Curator Emeritus 
of the Huntington Botanical Gardens, on a subject closely in harmony with the Edu- 
cational Committee's theme of the International Flower Show this year, as well as one 
which has made Mr. Hertrich's name known around the globe; 3) a word portrait of 
one of the southland's most eminent plantsmen, Mr. Hugh Evans. 



^ CONTRIBUTORS, NEXT ISSUE: 

University of Californui at Los Angeies 
Mr. Phillip Chandler- -Evans and Reeves 




Dr. Philip Munz— Director, Santa Ana 
Botanic Garden, Claremont, California 



16 



LASCA LEAVES 



THE HOMESITE ON RANCHO SANTA ANITA 

Susanna Bryant Dakin 

Through the centuries diverse individu- diction as a mission rcwcho shortly after 

als have fallen in love with the beauty and the establishment of San Gabriel Mission 

bounty of Santa Anita. First to dwell in in 1771. Its status remained unchanged 

this "Place of Many Waters," which they when Spanish rule in California gave way 

called Aleupkig-thi. were Indians of Sho- to Mexican in 1822. Administration of 

shonean stock who built their jacales Santa Anita by mission pctdre.s continued 

(brush huts) where the homesite always until secularization was completed, in the 

has been. Here the Gabrielinos lived a late 1830's. The rancho was stocked with 

peaceful life for an uncounted number cattle, horses and sheep — and used purely 

of years — entirely off the land. as pasturage with no structures more per- 

They fished in the spring-fed lake and manent than the identical jctailes of Indian 

snakes and insects. Grasshoppers roasted As a reward for the services of Reid's 

on a stick they considered a delicacy. From India 

trees and plants growing on the place missi( 

came additional food, medicines, cleans- were given Santa Anita by their 

ers, clothing (the little that was needed in the padres during the secularizatic 

this semi-tropical land still free from mis- od. In 1839, after becoming a ^ 

sionaries' influence) . Clay from local de- citizen, Reid petitioned Governor 

posits was used for cooking- and storing- do for full and clear title, but did 

pots ; feathers, stones and shells for uten- ceived more than provisional titl 

Hugo Reid, a subsequent dweller on made land grants hastily and ind 

the Santa Anita homesite, wrote some re- nately to his friends, before fleei 

markably well informed and interesting American conquerors at the end 



1 of beauty and intelligence who Hugo Reid erected the first permanenu 

im legends of her people, taught structure on the homesite at Santa Anita, 

le language, and even gave him This was a one-story L-shaped adobe resi- 

Df their more palatable recipes for dence constructed during 1839 from the 

ition. Scotchman's own plan by Indian workmen 

;r study of the Indian diet and who received as pay fr'ijoles three times a 

remedies prescribed by the medi- day and an occasional bolt of coarse cloth 

len (such as wild tobacco pills to for clothing. The Reid family lived on the 

ever), Reid concluded that "inas- ranch, dispensing prodigious hospitality, 

as syphilis was unknown, brandy until 1847 when hard times came upon 

V ebb, their nosology was very Santa Anita was sold in that year, for 

1." Due to diet, and possibly also 2()c an acre, to Henry Dalton an English- 



Through t 



'kmg" 



SPRING 1953 




LASCA LEAVES 



open sunny exposure and do exception- 
ally well in the coastal belt of southern 
California, from Santa Barbara region 
southward to San Diego. Most of the spe- 
cies grown in southern Califoi 



any type of soil famed Lord Hanbury garden, La Mortola, 

plants they re- in Ventimiglia, Italy. The writer obtained 

They prefer an there some exceedmgly interesting 

■ ■ ^ to the Aloe collection. Other 
le from South African Botanical 
after contact had been made for 
horticultural advantage. True 

dy but a few can be grown with unless seed is carefully collected from iso- 

certain success only in the wanner coastal l^ted specimens, because Aloes have a 

areas or other frost-free regions. The latter tendency toward cross-pollinization, aided 

minority are those which are indigenous to by insects. Bagging is the usual method 

the warmer sections of South Africa. Aloes followed to prevent this. For sheer orna- 

range in size from small species a few mental use, however, many of the hybrid 

inches high to specimens attaining at ma- Aloes are not only acceptable but in some 

turity a height of thirty feet or more and instances superior to true species— a fact 

tree-like proportions forming, sometimes, demonstrable at the Huntington Gardens, 

heavy trunks with proportionately heavy During the 18th century Aloes became 

Aloes in southern California that would containers as well as in the open ground 
answer a variety of landscaping needs and plantings. Ornate containers holding Aloe- 
would provide a flowering schedule from plants of the various sizes and types coukl 
October to July, the peak of bloom coming be seen frequently on balconies or tcr- 



successfuUy in this region for tlic past live ctfccts in the gardens here where sul 

this period indicates that it is advisable in the landscaping scheme, 
this climate to renew or replace plants At the turn of the present century very 

every twenty to twenty-five years, since the few Aloes had found their way into south- 

InrSty"*prodSc'in^''^^''t^ more vigor ern California. The species chiefly grovsn 

spikes but a greater number of them per the hardier and more ornamental'spcucv 

season. Propagation methods outlined be- Frequently it was found planted in the okl 

low may be followed to keep a succession Mission gardens, particularly m San 

of new plants ready for the replacements Diego, San Juan Capistrano, and Santa 

that need to be made. Barbara, where the coastal climate taxor^ 

The first Aloe plants in the Huntington its growth and development. A/oc i . ' 

Gardens were set out while the estate was another notable species in use at thai t.nu 

undergoing landscaping plans to enhance and earlier in the history of this country 

It as a private garden for the pleasure of possibly, in fact, the Aloe mention..! 

the Huntington family. Since that tunc. carhest Greek and Roman historv -1.-'. 

1907, a steady increase in the colleCo.i plants were valued for their thcrapeuu. 



nphshed by introduction of properties. The hi 

young plants and seed from several differ- forms an interesting study 
ent parts of the world. The Mediterranean and grey-green leaved ph 



SPRING 1953 



19 



medicinal qualities in the leaves, especi- from the majority of species is abundant 

ally effective in the treatment of burns that and it germinates readily. Germination is 

do not respond readily to other remedies accomplished most successfully in seed 

(e.g. X-ray burns) . During World War pans or flats. From such pans young seed- 

II the demand for the leaves with their lings may be transplanted after a few 

healing juices almost exhausted the supply months to containers allowing more room 

of plants in the Huntington Gardens. In for the individual seedlings to develop ; 

Puerto Rico a planting of considerable and from these containers, the young 

size was one time made for experimental plants may be placed in an open frame or 

purposes. The leaf of this Aloe when^cut ground bed with little overhead protec- 

causes stain to cloth fabrics that no known seeding time.'^depending upon the species, 

cleaning process will remove. Monastery the plants are usually strong enough to 

gardens in continental Europe planted this be set out in the open ground. Some of 

species extensively for medicinal use; these seedlings will begin to bloom after 

ly planted them for landscaping effects as ^ A quicker method of propagation is by 

well. This particular Aloe has escaped severing a portion of the plant including a 

n a container. Roots form quickly and 
L fairly short time — a matter of months 

imLn. Luuuuiuns. c»ome years ago a num- instead of years — new plants are ready to 

3er of these escapes were found in the use for permanent location. Such plants 

/icmity of a number of the early estab- may bloom the first year, but certainly will 

ished Missions. More recently several the second. It does not seem to matter 

icres of the plants have been found about how large the head taken for propagation 

wenty kilometers south of the present use; in the experience of the Huntington 

Vlission of Todos Santos in Lower Cali- Gardens, heads weighing as much as 

ornia — a solid mass of them apparently twenty to fifty pounds have been success- 

vashed into an Arroyo basin. fully rooted. Especially adapted to this 

^^•^unous fact about young Aloe plants incthod arc all species and^variet^ies of the 

he Huntington Gardens— a puzzle to ^ :-lh.k!jnj. ^(Jninns^ 

o experience with most other plants. Dur- ' ■ ^ i his method is known 

ng the severe winters of 1937 and 1949 ve.^u.His. [ .op.i-ation. 

nany of the mature Aloe plants having Root division is still another method, 

runks from four to six inches in diam- Many of the smaller species and varieties 

tcr and four to six feet tall were affected form broad clumps of numerous heads, all 

>y the frosts in direct reverse to the ma- of which readily develop root systems 

ority of other kinds of plants in the gar- which can easily be separated into poten- 

Icns. The older, more solid-tissued trunks tial plants of various desired sizes. Other 

uffered fatal damage from the ground species make underground runners in all 

ipwards to about a one or two foot height directions and severing them at given 

^hile the succulent younger leaves and points immeasurably simplifies the proced- 



SPRING 1953 21 




LASCA LEAVES 




SPRING 1953 



25 



HUGH EVANS: PLANTSMAN 

Cora R. Brandt 




SPRING 1953 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION 




It 




SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



Officers 1953 

President Fred W. Roewekamp 

Vice-President Ralph H. Cornell 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Treasurer Kenneth Bishop 



William Beresford 
Manchester Boddy 
Howard Bodger 
Philip Chandler 
Percy C. Everett 



Earle E. Humphries 
Mildred E. Mathias 
Alfred W. Roberts 
Vernon S. Stoutemeyer 
Ronald B. Townsend 
Westcott 



Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) . . . 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 3rd Thursday each month at Park and Recreation Building, 
18th and Tobcrman Streets, Los Angeles, California 



LASCA LEAVES 



Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Chandler Philip A. Munz 

William Hertrich Russell J. Seibert 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California — Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Russell J. Seibert 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemeyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. Quinn Buck 

Succulents Alfrfd C. Hottfs 



Janet Wright, Ec 
JULY, 1953 



CONTENTS 



38 LASCA LEAVES 





THE POLLINATION OF SOME SUBTROPICAL 
FRUIT TREES 



40 LASCA LEAVES 





EDITOR S COMMENTS 



LASCA LEAVES 




SUMMER 1953 



THE HOMESITE ON RANCHO SANTA ANITA (con't.) 

Susanna Bryant Dakin 

The first lay owners of Rancho Santa raised cattle solely for hides and tallow. 

Anita were a handsome happy pair— the Santa Anita became a showplace in the 

"Scotch Paisano," Hugo Reid and the In- early 1840's, and Reid hospitality was 

dian wife whom he named Victoria. Both proverbial. 

were tall, with fine figures — he, sandy- Being a literary man with a library 

haired and blue-eyed ; she, Castilian in unique in California, Don Hugo attracted 

appearance, with lustrous dark eyes and many writers to his home. A frequent visi- 

hair. He called her, often, his "rose of tor was Alfred Robinson, author of the 

Castile" and featured such roses in the perennially popular "Life in California." 

home garden. The four children of her Don Alfredo enjoyed the family life of 

early Indian marriage he adopted and edu- "old Reid," his gracious wife, his daughtei 

cated as his own, sending the boys to Cali- kn • - ^ ^ „ . . . . 

fornia's first institution of higher learn- an 

mg, Hartnell's colegio near Monterey. wrote ot ttie nomesite: 

Reid himself was a Cambridge man, "It is one of the fairy spots to be met 
best known as a writer, and a framer of with so often in California. On the de- 
California's constitution in 1849. He in- clivity of a hill is erected a >Noli>io or 
troduced advanced farming methods dur- grist-mill, surrounded with fruit trees and 

(1«^S-I847). Frequently he consulted unruffled in front, and all around fresh 

with his French vecino. Jean Louis Vignes, streams are gushing from the earth, and 

•uul the Kentuckian William Wolfskill, scattering their waters in every direction." 

who in Bancroft's "Pioneer Register" are William Heath Davis was another inter- 

Lh.iractcnzed as "the pioneer's of Califor- preter of the early scene who experienced 

nia s greatest industry, the production of Reid hospitality in its heyday, and record- 

^\ me and fruit." Over the years Don Hugo ed his impressions: 

•ind Dona Victoria also exchanged seeds "During our stay as guests at Santa 

and slips, small trees and vines with the Anita (for two months preceding Christ- 

padres at neighboring San Gabriel Mis- mas, 1844) we feasted daily on good food, 

■^'on- For breakfast we had honey (the produc- 

Writing for advice to his crony "Don tion of the land, and in fact everything we 

Abel" Stearns, the great landholder of ate was), fresh eggs from the poultry 

^ ' ----- - - which was well-stocked with chick- 
ducks, geese, and turkeys; coffee with 

Prefacing rich cream; chocolate and tea; 'chir 



that pastoral era in California history, Reid 
listed the planting surrounding his home 



the detailed inventory, he wr 
^'neyard is walled around. It contains 
^mes totallmg 22,730 and ground suflici- 

to make up the number of 40,000, be- composed the first meal of the day. The 
s'des 430 varied fruit trees." cloth was neat and the furniture of the 

Such diversity w^- J..-:-~ i-u^ f,,ki*. ,„o<. «^.^.,."c,>^.l,r <l,=or. 

bountiful Have ' 



50 



LASCA LEAVES 



and atmospheric moisture must be respon- ested: the Duvdevani Dew-Gauge and re- 
sible for the rather luxuriant "belly plant" lated equipment, as well as complete in- 
growth found on certain rainless areas of structions and pertinent literature, is now 
the Peruvian desert during the fog season commercially available through C. F. Ca- 
of each year. sella & Co., Ltd., 



, oi recording amounts of d 
data available little compel 



Square, London, W.L, England, 
research on dew, Mr. 



t Cal-Tech t 



ffect on plants under controlled laborat^ 

plants could be undertaken. conditions. In collaboration with his p 

For several years the Government of ject, the Arboretum's research departm 

Israel has maintained a Dew Research Sta- under Louis B. Martin, has installed 

tion at Karkar, Israel, under the direction first dew-recording station in the Uni 

of S. Duvdevani. States, with Dewey E. Nelson as obser\ 
Duvdevani has been able to develop the Altk)ugh natural plant species of Isr 

of dew' precipitation as"well 1' 'certain there ^^.^e many similarities in ^ typc^^^ 

of dew formation. tions, particularly in the southern Calit 

Essentially the equipment for recording nia area. Therefore it is of significance t 

dew consists of a specially treated block of S- Duvdevani may further his invest i 

observed^ through a series of water pat- telling factor in the growth of our natu 

terns. These various patterns may be com- vegetation. His findings most certai 

pared with a series of photographed stand- will be of considerable interest to all o 
ard patterns, each of which is numbered, especially to those whose \vi 

value which permitf the Recording of all semi-arid regions of the world, 
stages of intergradation between the major 
pattern divisions. Patterns formed by a 
mixture of both dew and rain, or rain 



LIBRARY ACQUISITIONS 



sily distinguished from t 
of dew alone. The recording consisting of 
reference numbers and letters may then be 
translated into actual fractions of milli- 
meters of dew precipitation each night. 
Recordings are made at sunup or very 
shortly thereafter, before evaporation shall 

A series of about four dew gauges rang- 
ing from ground level to one meter above 
ground provides with relative accuracy, 
and comparison between wet and dry sea- 
sons, the basic dew formation and pre- 
cipitation for a key spot under observa- 

The dew gauge serves a function which 
the rain gauge has never touched, since 

sufficient water to^flow into a rain gauge 
where it, in turn, could be recorded. 
For those who may be further inter- 



51 





52 



LASCA LEAVES 



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE FLORA OF ISRAEL 
and SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

F. W. Went 

The climate of Israel, Spain and other extreme types of salt plants. All of our 

Mediterranean countries resembles that of plants of saline habitats come from coastal 

southern California in many respects, and marshes. 

consequently we find that many parallels Some of the most prominent desert 

exist between the vegetation of southern plants in southern California have origi- 

California and the Mediterranean areas, nated in Chilean deserts, which are much 

ticularly during 'summer, and in both'cases quite and creosote bush. Here in south- 

we find cool, fairly wet winters. There ern California, we find a gradual change 

between these regions: whereas, geologi- flora. As we get into drier areas, fewer 

cally speaking, the climate of southern plants from the chapparal can be found 

California has become dry in rather recent and gradually more typical desert plants 

times, the Mediterranean and surrounding appear. There are only very few typical 

of years. Consequently, we find a large most typical steppe plant, the sage brush 

number of parallels and a number of dif- of Nevada, is closely related to Artemisia 

ferences between the vegetation in these from the chapparal and therefore cannot 

two areas. In both cases, the plant cover be considered as a new floristic element. 

Mediterranean shrub vegetation. ^In south- different when travelling from the coastal 

ponents of chapparal are oaks, members terranean shrub vegetation gradually be- 

of the rose family, sages and a few rela- comes replaced by a steppe vegetation 

tivcs of the blueberry, such as manzanita w hich differs fundamentally from both the 

and Arbutus; in the Mediterranean areas, Mediterranean and the desert vegetation, 

the main types are oak, pine, sages and This is the so-called Irano-turanian flora, 

leguminous shrubs, with also Arbutus. In Only after having passed the broad belt ot 

the drier regions a typical desert vegeta- this new floristic element does one en- 

tion is found, both in Israel and in south- counter typical desert vegetation. This 

ance lookTJy imch alike^Tn Cahfomk, theTemi-ariTreglSnl^orPer^^^^ and Turki- 

ironwood, palo verde, and the smoke tree stan where for millions of years the same 

are found in washes in the drier areas; general climate allowed the development 

whereas in Israel, acacias and tamarix grow of a very special steppe type of vegetatiom 

in similar spots. Smaller perennials are Many of our most valuable cultivated 

abundant in number of species but poor plants, such as wheat and other cereals, 

in number of specimens in both places, peas, etc., belong to this Irano-turan- 

And finally, we find in both deserts in- ian flora and thus we see many of the an- 

numerable annuals after the proper rain, cestors of our cultivated plants growing 

In the Israel desert, we find, in addition, in Israel in the vegetation belt between 

a group of plants which are not found in the coast and the desert. Other plants like 

southern California. These are the plants the oncocyclus iris, tulip, and glaJio us 

which are able to grow in strong salt con- grow in the same area. Thus the traveler 

centrations and which are found along the in Israel does not only gather the imprcs- 

shores of the Red Sea and the Dead Sea. sion that all the time he is treading ground 

Apparently the youth of the California hallowed by human history, but the botan- 

desert has prevented the development of ist also feels that he is seeing an area tlu 



SUMMER 1953 



53 



is the cradle of so many of our cultivated 

Professor Zohary, the head of the Bot- 
any Department of the Hebrew University 
in Jerusalem, pointed out some other very 
interesting facts about the Irano-turanian 
flora. Whereas, normally we look at seeds 
as a method of dispersal of plants, he 
pointed out that plants might be better off 
if they did not try to disperse their seeds 
over a large area. After all, the successful 
growth of a plant in a particular spot in- 

ing conditions. Why should a^pknt scatter 
its seeds all around instead of re-establish- 
mg itself in the same place Actually Pro- 
fessor Zohary showed that a large number 
of the plants from the Irano-turanian flora 

seeds near the mother plant. There are 
mechanisms such as having some of the 
flowers develop under ground, which 
i-auses the seeds to remain below the sur- 
face in the plant where the original plant 
.urous. Or, in other plants like some of 
tlic c lovers and the peanut, the young fruit 
1^ diucn into the ground where the .seeds 
riptn. Or, the seed pods remain attached 
to tlic plant instead ot dropping; off and 
being dispersed. 



When we look around in southern Cali- 
fornia we find that only a few plants have 
developed such special mechanisms, re- 
ducing the dissemination of seeds. One 
of the most typical examples is Oeno- 
thera decorticans in which the seed pods 
become so hard and woody that many of 
the seeds remain enclosed in them. 

It seems that there is a causal relation- 
ship between the lack of dispersal of seeds 
from Irano-turanian plants and their im- 
portance as food plants. Only plants of 
which the seeds do not scatter upon har- 
vesting of the ripe plant can be made into 
crop plants. When plants are harvested, 
the seeds should remain attached until 
threshing. This is actually the case in many 
of the Irano-turanian plants, and thus it is 

our wild desert plants, the seeds are scat- 
tered immediately upon ripening and 
therefore are hard to collect^ In the Irano- 

picking dry plants and putting them in 
bags. Since the .seeds arc so large and do 
not fall oflf anyway, even paper bags full 

bags without any holes it we want to^kcep 



CALENDAR 



54 



LASCA LEAVES 




CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION 



Board of Trustees 

dent Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

President Mrs. Harry J. Bauer 

President Robert Casamajor 

lurer Howard A. Miller 

Manchester Boddy William Hertrich 

Ralph D. Cornell John C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel B. Mosher 

Mrs. Thomas Fleming Mrs. William D. Shearer 

John Anson Ford Frits W. Went 



Roy F. Wii 



Mrs. J. E. Hartoi 
Charles S. Jones 



LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNT 

Russell J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Louis B. Martin Plant Physiologist 

W. Quinn Bucx Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Dewey E. Nelson Historical Curator 

Thelma G. Blanchard Secretary 

Janet Wright Research and Library (part time) 

Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 

Officers 1953 

President Fred W. Roewekamp 

Vice-President Ralph H. Cornell 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Treasurer Kenneth Bishop 

Executive Secretary Ronald B. Townsend 

board of directors 
William Beresford Earle E. Humphries 

Manchester Boddy Mildred E. Mathias 

Howard Bodger Alfred W. Roberts 

Philip Chandler Vernon S. Stoutemeyer 

Percy C. Everett Ronald B. Townsend 



Samuel Ayres, Jr. 
Robert Casamajor 
Henry R. Davis 
Hugh Evans 



Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) . . . 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 



Meetings: 3rd Thursday each month at Park and Recreation Building, 
18th and Toberman Streets, Los Angeles, California 



Box 688— Arcadia— California 
Telephone DOuglas 7-3444 



LASCA LEAVES 

The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 
and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 



Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Chandler Philip A. Munz 

William Hertrich Russell J. Seibert 



Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Russell J. Seibert 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemeyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Succulents Alfred C. Hottes 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. Munz 

Janet Wright, Ed/for 



Vol. Ill 



OCTOBER, 195 3 



AUTUMN 1953 



WHITE FLOWERING NATIVE CALIFORNIA PLANTS 
FOR GARDEN USE 

Katherine K. Muller 
Vhite flowers are widely used as ac- make it easily one of the showiest plants 



cents in garden plantings, while charmir 
effects are created in the occasional a 
white garden. For those who intend 
use white flowers in their garden plan ar 
who look for something a bit unusual 
plant material, there are several nati^ 
California species wel 



flowe 



■ garden. So dense are the star-like 
s at the height of their bloom that 
iderlying plant structure can scarcely 



and the finely divided leaves beginni 
brown. The plant is then ready to I 
back to await the next growing s( 



Botanic Garden. Soi 
ready been accepted 
trade and 



:ime, it seems useful 
the Santa Barbara 
in the horticultural 



t least 



are readily available at mc 
eries. Others, just as desirable, ha 
yet been generally tested. Varying 

e of these white flowering nati 
litable for almost any gard. 



white flowered species of Oenothera as 
subjects for garden culture, although the 

Dften cultivated. Oenothera deltoides is 



Not 



grown. Those to be c 
ever, should offer n( 

Fragurui chHoensh, Sand Strawbe 
already known as a desirable ground 
plant. Covered with a mass of white 



which spread out 

ing native in cartwheel fashion from the base of the 
y garden stem. By the middle of spring the large 
re easily 4-petalled flowers, up to 3 inches across, 
ere, how- begin to open and continue into summer, 
ral prob- This Dune Primrose is easily grown under 
almost any garden conditions and is cap- 
ble of naturalizing itself and coming up 



flow- Of the perennial white flowering oer 

5ugh- theras, Oenothera caespitosa var. mar 

green nata is especially to be mentioned. It i 

;ed as compact plant with long lobed leaves a 

;rable large fragrant flowers which open t 



narrow border not more than a foot in 
jvidth along garden paths and flower beds. 
It thrives under normal garden conditions 
and IS well adapted for use in combina- 
tion with the more common garden plants. 
Gilia nuttalln var. Horibunda is a plant 



Santa 

ally useful in borders and ( 
niilteri, Matilija Poppy, is w< 



although 



/idely 



spring garden centers are 
known. This Blooming i 
dense rounded heaviest flo' 



t herbage 10 to 12 inches high. 
Konspicuous plant except when 
but in late spring it bursts i 



A'hich after floweri 



garden arc sometimes available. 

Carpe>Ueua cahfonma is a be 
tive plant which has found its 
limited cultivation both in th 
and abroad. It is a densely 
shrub growing to a height ot (: 
with simple oblong leaves whici 
green on the upper < 



somewhat resembling those 
phus. The flowers have 5 
around a mass of pale yellow 



lite^owert 
" PhiLuiel- 



which are especially good in hot dr}^^liH.i 

IS a diflFuscly branching shrub with Miiall 
finely divided grey-green leaves. In riowcr 
It IS a handsome plant for it is covered 
with short flower stalks which project be- 
yond the foliage, each bearing a showy 
white flower resembling a small single 
rose. From each flower there develops a 
cluster of small dry fruits with long tufted 
soft pink plumes, making a feathery ball 
up to 3 inches in diameter. The flowering 



Sept. 



her wit 



May anc 
a gradual 



filtered sunlight. Although i 



i 



AUTUMN 1953 



61 




LASCA LEAVES 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE | 
1952-1953 ■ 

Another successful year in the history of the Southern Cahfornia Horticultural ; 
Institute has come to a close, and high hopes are held for its future in the light of its = 
past achievements. 

One of the major accomplishments of the past year has been the development of a ^ 
publication which reaches not only the membership of the Institute but an increasing i 
number of people interested in the development of the Los Angeles State and County | 
Arboretum — itself an accomplished objective of the Horticultural Institute. Formerly j 
a publication solely of California Arboretum Foundation, Inc., the quarterly known as ' 
Lasca Leaves is now a joint periodical of the two institutions, as announced in the 
Spring, 1953, issue. Through the fine professional members of the Editorial Board, it 
gives expert, up-to-date articles and information, in addition to timely news of other ^ 
arboretums and botanic gardens, which makes us realize that this new phase of com- 

The month of March marked the Fourth California International Flower Show, held ; 
at Hollywood Park, Inglewood, Calif. It met with outstanding success. This flower 
show came into existence through the efforts of the Horticultural Institute. (See LascA j 
Leaves. Spring, 1953, issue. Vol. Ill, No. 2, p. 12.) During last season it achieved the j 
reputation of being the major show of its kind in the United States— and we are really | 
just getting started ! When a spectacle of this kind is presented to 200,000 enthusiastic ? 
visitors from all parts of the world, as recorded this past year, it is bound to have far 
reaching effects. 

These and other events of a successful past should be an incentive to further achieve- 
e t J e pcct. ^^^^ ^ RoEWEKAMP, President. 



Report of Activities 

Chairman of Monthly Meetings and Pro- 
grams: Mr. Philip Chandler. 

The following summarizes the programs 
held during the past year, at Toberman 
Playground Auditorium, 18th and Tober- 
man, Los Angeles, the 3rd Thursday of 

September 18, 1952: Tropical Plants 
for Southern California, with particular 
emphasis on Bromeliads. Mr. Mulford B. 
Foster, famed plant explorer, of Orlando, 
Florida, outlined the culture of these 
plants and illustrated them with colored 
slides of specimens both in their native 
habitat and under cultivation. 

October 16: Hedges and Screen-ma- 
terial, discussed by a panel of landscape 
authorities. Miss Peggy Sullivan served as 
moderator, assisted by Eric Armstrong, 
head landscape designer of Evans and 



Reeves Nurseries; Jay Gooch, landscao* 
architect; Dudley Hickman, landscape Af 

^ ^November 20: Trees for Southern Colt' 
fornia, a talk by Leroy Chetwood of Kefr 
line- Wilcox Nurseries. 

December 18: Christmas Color in CaU 
fornia Gardens, talk by Jay Gooch, Land- 
scape Architect of West Los Angeles. , 

January 15: The Fruit of Your Garden 
panel discussion led by Richard WestCO 
of Paul J. Howard Nursery, assisted I 
Dr. Walter Lammerts, and Mr. Dillon. 

February 18: Camellias, their cultUi 
and present day use in home and garden 
talk by Professor Claude Chidamian « 
U.S.C. ■ 
March 19: Unusual Bulbs, talk by Jairt 
Giridlian, 1952 Editor, Bulb Societ 

April 16: Roses, both old and fieui 



AUTUMN 1953 



63 



uersfeld), assisted by Dr. California Horticultui 



nd Jo 
veld. 

May 21: The Mixed Flower Garden, 
panel discussion under leadership of Ray- 
mond Page, with Mrs. Mildred Davis and 
Howard Bodger assisting. 

June 18: Face-lifting the Garden, talk 
and discussion by Ralph Cornell. 

July 16: Tropicals for the Sun, talk by 
Ladislaus Cutak of the Missouri Botanical 
Gardens, St. Louis, generously illustrated 
withsHdes. 

ance. Report and discussion of new types 
of turf under consideration, and experi- 
mentation under scientific control, by 
panel consisting of: Gorden Wyckoff, 
Division of Floriculture and Ornamental 
Horticulture, U.C.L. A. ; Marston H. Kim- 
ball, Ornamental Horticulturist, Agricul- 



i Servi 



, Los 



William Beresford, L. A. Country Club, 
gave evidence of the interest they aroused 



Plant Forums: Chairman, Dr. Mildred 
Mathias, Botany Dept., University of Cali- 
fornia at Los Angeles (U.C.L.A.). Re- 
port of previous plant forums is printed 
"1 the monthly notices. A file of plants 
exhibited is kept for reference. 

Reception and Membership: Chairman, 
Mrs. Maria Wilkes, who with her com- 
"iittee is mainly responsible for the grati- 
rymg increase in membership. 

Arboretum and Street Tree Planting: 
Chairman, Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr. Pro- 
gressive interest shown by civic-minded 
people of the city of Los Angeles and by 
members of the City Administration is 
due largely to Dr. Ayrcs' constant work 
on the street tree program for this area. 



/ided in the code, sine 
mized and operated 
:ational and scientific 



equent to May 26, 1951, are deductible in 
omputing taxable net income in the man- 
ler and to the extent provided by the 
ode. The Board of Directors is {^leased 

his^ Annual Report. 

September marks the opening of a new 
ear of activity of the Institute, with the 
ollowinfi officers and committee chair- 



Secretary George H. Spalcing 

Treasurer Kenneth Bishop 

Program . ' Peggy Sullivan 

Membership Ronald B. Townsend 

Street Tree Planting. . .Dr^Samiuel Ayres, Jr. 

Publicity°"^'^^'°"^ Howard Bodger 

Endowment Fund Manfred Meyberg 

Plant FoJum Dispiay.'.'. .V.JoHN Waterbury 

Pasadena Flower Show Kenneth Bishop 

Usca Leaves ^. Philip Chandler, 

International Flower Show 

For one year. Jack Evans, Lovell Swisher 



; Tomli 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 
HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE, INC. 
FINANCIAL SUMMARY 

July 1, 1952, to June 30, 1953 



64 



LASCA LEAVES 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 

Annual Membership Meeting plants in 11 species and varieties by var- 

June 16, 1953 garden clubs as their Arbor Day pro- 

ANNUAL REPORT 1952-53 Eighteen species and varieties are 
now represented in the Arboretum collec- 

CONSTRUCTION: tion. Additional redwoods and metase- 

County Capital Improvement work on quoias were planted near our established 

the grounds this fiscal year has consisted redwood to form a small grove, 

of: Two large plantings of Eucalyptus were 

1. Grading, paving and preparation of made in the Australian section of the 
the parking area adjoining the west side grounds, and a sizeable planting of Aca- 
of Baldwin Avenue between Colorado cias has been installed at the north end of 
Blvd., and the staff entrance, just north of the Baldwin Ave. parking lot. The Ar- 
the forecourt area; included are staff and boretum's Eucalyptus and Acacia collec- 
service entrance gates. tions are now probably the largest, in 

2. Paving of the north loop road number of species, in the country. The 
through the north acres and the Tallac Daylily collection has been moved to its 
Knoll road; this completes the major pav- permanent location. Our Protea collection 
ing of Arboretum roads. has been planted in permanent location 

3. Installation of north loop water and experimentation with soil mixtures and 
main and primary and main sewer spur containers for this group is producing 
lines along the future building area. some very interesting data. 

4. Installation of sprinkler systems in The field nursery trial areas are de- 
the parking area, the northeast nursery veloping very satisfactorily and additional 
area and throughout the southeast section plants of promise have been observed. 

of the Arboretum, including a portion of A considerable quantity of seed has 

the Historical Preserve. been collected of rare and unusual plants 

5. Construction of an aluminum lath which will be used to augment our col- 
house on the permanent lath house site. lections and a portion distributed for test- 

6. Drainage facilities were improved ing in other sections of Southern Cah- 
through the remodeling of the old 4 foot fornia. 

drain gate of the Lagoon into a spillway. The Bottlebrush collection was planted 

FORECOURT PARCEL: in permanent location in the Australian 

The County has purchased some 3.6 section and already has shown now 



acres of property which will form the drought resistant these plants 

main public entrance and forecourt off what poor soil they will tolerate. 

Baldwin Ave. Main ' " ' 
HORTICULTURAL PROGRAM: 



Maintenance of all plantings has been 
a level as possible with 



accessions of seeds and plants at the '""'^^J T"" n'f 

.oretum totaled 1 746 individual items brought the plant collections to a { 

in past years many countries were rep- considerably enhancing the appeal 

nted and the accessions will add valu- ^he Arboretum grounds. 

material to our plant collections. ^ shipment of seed and cuttini 

lore than 3,500 plants were set in ^^e Forestry Department ot is 

. the grounds. This given us a good «n obtaim 



; than double the number planted ^^^'^1 ^^r an authentic biblical garden^ 
last year. Both our growing and planting Our extensive collection ot roriy 

program are accelerating and the^erma ^pecies of bamboo has also been planted 
nent plantings are beginning to sh 



location in the Palm : 
LUX ARBORETUM ANNEX: 



LASCA LEAVES 



; Clul^Lake An 



hakespeare Club— Pasadena 

.outh East Horticultural Society— South Gate 

V'oman s Club of Inglewood— Garden Section 



ARTICLES PUBLISHED: 
;ral artic 

ring the pa 
: published, 



Leaves 
Seibert having 
r one and Mr. 



PUBLICITY: 

The excellent publicity furnished the 
Arboretum by the Los Angeles area dur- 
ing the 1952-53 fiscal year has included 75 
articles and 56 illustrations, inclusive only 
of those clippings which have reached the 
Arboretum office. 
TALKS: 

Twelve talks have been given by the 
Arboretum staff since July 1, 1952. Dr. 
Seibert, seven; Mr. Spalding, one; Mr. 
Nelson, one; and Mr. Martin, three. 
PROGRAMS, TELEVISION AND 
RADIO PUBLICITY: 

Dr. Seibert and Mr. Nelson gave two 
radio programs; one taped and one live 
program. Mr. Spalding and Mr. Martin 
gave one television program. 
CONTRIBUTIONS OF SPECIAL 
MENTION: See Usca Leaves. Spring Is- 
sue, 1953. Vol. Ill, No. 3, p. 54. Names. 
Notes and News Column. 
LIBRARY ACQUISITIONS: See issus of 
Lasca Leaves as noted immediately above, 
p. 50. 

HOLLYW'OOD GARDEN CLUB: 

We are indebted to the Hollywood 
Garden Club for a contribution of $100.00 



Service Entrance. [Note: Hollywood Gar- 
den Club should be added to the repre- 
sentative clubs participating in the Arbor 
Day program, as noted on p. 55 of the 
above mentioned Lasca Leaves, Spring 

VOLUNTEER WORKERS: 

Dr. George P. Lux, acting as Honorary 
Curator of Lux Arboretum Annex, Care 
of Lux Arboretum Annex. 

W. Dan Quattlebaum, Weed Control. 

Mrs. Ruth Spalding, Office hours. 
GROUP TOURS OF THE 
ARBORETUM: 

4,322 individuals were conducted 
through the grounds on guided tours, 
which made up 145 tours by appointment, 
consisting of sponsored groups of many 
different interests, e.g. Scouts, Brownies, 
other school groups; Garden Clubs, etc. 
MEMBERSHIP OF CALIFORNIA 
ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC.: 

Annual Members 192 

Annual Contributing Members 46 

Annual Sustaining Members 2 

Founder Members 

Honorary Life Member 

Total of 333 Members— of which t 
Garden Clubs. 

EXCHANGE PUBLICATIONS: 



FINANCIAL SUMMARY 
July 1, 1952, to June 30, 1953 
Total Income ^ ^ ^^^^^^ 

^"l. ^A.'^County 56,600.00 

Endowment Fund . . . 600.00 



LASCA LEAVES 




70 



LASCA LEAVES 



GRASSES FOR OUR HOME LAWNS 

R. J. Seibert and L. B. Martin 



One of the research projects at the Ar- 
boretum has been the development and 
maintenance of various lawn grasses. This 
program has been guided by: 
1. Desire for grasses or grass combina- 
tions in our Southern California area 



emphasizing drought tolerance, 
of the home owner for a place t( 
e mature lawns of acceptable green coJ 
i growing under a variety of con- 3 would 
thus, enabling him to select leaf text 



iitable 



ance in the Southern California area. 
The first grass plots were started during 
the summer of 1950. The number of plots 
and grass species has been increased since 



with potential 
be isolated for 



britf^ir 



some detail. The other grassf 
combinations will be included i 
•rder to indicate the scope of ou 



uniform than that of common Bermuda; 
the absence of long, coarse runners being 
notable. Summer color ranges from the 
light green of Everglades No. I to the 
rich green of Everglades No. 3. Summer 
maintenance includes a thorough soaking 
every ten to fourteen days and light r ' 



all 



Figui 

ture of Everglades No. 3. 

U-3 Bermuda: Our material was ob- 
tained from UCLA in 1951. Plantings 
have been made on clay and on sandy 
soils. The grass has grown well on the 
clay site; on the sandy site it has covered 
much more slowly and is of lighter color. 
True to the species U-3 browns off in the 
winter. This strain, however, becomes 
the spring 



)f the oth< 



:r Bermudas observed 



iirable grasses will ^^s tne 

study. It is hoped pearmg ( 

hat such a program will result in the ful- muda str; 

illment of the needs outlined above. Bermuda 
Thus far, two grasses have been of par- P^^" 

icular interest to us, namely the Bermudas agement, 
nd the Zoysias. Observations co ' 



Cytjodon Jrfr/)//o«— Bermuda grass. Ever- 
glades No. 1, No. 2, No. 3: Single plot 
of each of these Bermuda strains were es- 
tablished at the Arboretum in May, 1952. 
Plugging material was obtained from 
UCLA. Larger isolation plots were estab- 
lished in May, 1953, using plugs from the 
1952 planting. In general, the growth 
habit of these strains appears to be more 



appear possible to combine the Bermudas 
with certain cool season grasses in order 
to produce a year-round green lawn. 
Zoys}a~1h\s grass is native to troptcal 
and eastern Asia. Various species are 
recognized by the following common 
nam$s: Manila grass, Japanese lawngrass. 
and Mascarenegrass. 

Z. ;rffr^«;Vd— Japanese lawngrass: The 
coarsest appearing of the Zoysias. Seed of 

Arbo^e^um f rom' 'uSDA,'' BeltsviUe, 
Maryland, in 1950. Small plots were es 



AUTUMN 1953 



71 




LASCA LEAVES 



Figure 2 illu 



:af appears 



grass has made very 



Z. /rf/70wrrt— Meyer's or Z-52: This 
strain has a finer leaf, a more upright 
growth habit, and a deeper green color 
than the species. The Arboretum material 
came from UCLA in 1952 as part of a 

19^2-53, it retained its green color several 
weeks longer than the other strains of 
this species. See Fig. 3. 

Z. /;w/r6'//./-Manila grass: This species 
has narrower and shorter leaves than Z. 
japonica. Dr. C. V. Piper brought speci- 
mens of Z. niatrella to the United States 
from the Philippine Islands in 1911. The 
Arboretum's first planting was through 
seed obtained from Beltsville in the sum- 
mer of 1950. Nine of a total of twelve 
seedlings were selected in the spring of 
1951, on the basis of retaining some 
winter greenness. Two plantings were 
made from the:e selections, one in filtered 
shade and the other in full sun. Both 
plantings are doing well in their respective 

A second lot of Z. mdlretla seed from 
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico was divided into 
two parts and propagated as follows: 1) 
a 1951 summer attempt resulted in poor 

a 1952 spring attempt resulted in good 
germination and the production of two 
successful plots of grass. Selections based 

texture have been made from various 
seedlings of this second planting. Of par- 
ticular interest at present are the selections 
e^tabhshed in the spring of 195^3 between 

trance to the Arboretum. From these selec- 
tions may come one of the grasses which 
will eventually be used throughout the 
Arboretum. Fig. 4. 

Z. mafrella—Thv^n" : A selection of 
this species originated in Mayaguez, Puerto 
Rico in the winter of 1947. Two plantings 
are now under observation at the Arbore- 
tum ; the first from UCLA, supplied as a 
vegetative clone; and the second from 
seed of this clone, supplied by Ken 
Rogers, Yuma, Ariz. The vegetative ma- 
terial has grown well though slowly; the 



s very poor grov 
variability of ] 
color. No wir 



greenness was observed during the 1952- 

Zoysias in General: The chief apparent 
difference between the species Z. piponica 
and Z. matrella is in the size of the leaf. 
The former has a broad, coarse leaf; the 
latter a narrower, shorter leaf. From our 
observations a less apparent but equally 
important difference is that Z. niatrella is 
drought tolerar 



Thei 



ivhich 1 



two species share equally: 1) both are 
relatively free from our known grass dis- 
eases; 2) neither appears to be bothered 
by insects; 3) both are adaptable to a 
variety of soil types; 4) both are low 
growing, reducing the need for frequent 

crowds out weeds; and 6) both will bear 
heavy traffic and remain in serviceable 

The one disadvantage of these grasses 
is their winter color. It appears from our 
preliminary observations that variation for 



considered worthy of investigation. The 
first of these is Merion blue, a compara- 
tively new introduction. Fall plantings 
develop into a deep green, spongy, thick 
turf in a short time; however, during the 
summer months considerable difficulty 
arises in keeping this turf in top condi- 
tion. Carefully planned and regular care 
is required and many questions are still 
unanswered as to what are the best main- 
tenance practices for this grass in our area. 

The second blue grass we have called 
"Lucky Baldwin." An old lawn of this 
grass, mixed with common Bermuda, 
grows near the Reid Adobe on the grounds 
of the Arboretum. Little is known of the 



of this 



blue gr 



76 



LASCA LEAVES 



REFLECTIONS ON A RECENT HORTICULTURAL 
VISIT TO SOUTH AFRICA 

Samuel Ayres, Jr., m.d., Los Angeles, CaUforma, U.S.A. 



AUTUMN 1953 



77 




78 



LASCA LEAVES 




A COUNTRY DIARY 

ugust 14. pronounceable name. Tiny shoots from 

1 tangle of scrub and weeds not far knew (and probably browsed on) have 

trom nere is a tiny cutting from a tree reached the Lake District and cuttings 

which some people consider the most re- have been taken in a greenhouse in the 

markable in the world. The baby is about heart of the National Park. The young 

eighteen inches high but already it is tree I saw has been grown from one of 

straight and sturdy and one day it may these cuttings and in a plantation less than 

become a great forest tree. Its golden twenty miles from here there is an experi- 

leaves are delicately frilled, and the rough, mental half-acre of them. Botanists have 

stony patch— the least likely site you could known of the Dawn Redwood for many 

imagine for a great experiment— is crudely years, for its lovely leaves have been pre- 

fenced in with wire. The tender young served in fossilised form deep down in the 

sapling, as many of you will have guessed, ^cks throughout aeons of time. Now they 

is a Dawn Redwood, the legendary tree know the colour of those leaves, but they 

which the scientists said had been extinct can only guess how high the tree, which 

for sixty million years or more until the was thought to be extinct long before 

Chinese found one growing in a sacred history began, will grow. A. H. G. 
grove on the bank of a river with an un- From Mancheuer Guurdnw. Aug. 20, 1953 

EDITOR'S COMMENTS 

The figurative and much maligned spinach has its figurative parallels. Statistical re- 
ports may be one of them ; but they, too, build good fibres into constructive^projccts 

have left such behindf ancf will offer among other papers the followmg: 

Botanical Gardens and Arboretums of the Past and Their ReconMrinlion. by Frans 
Verdoorn; Two Interesting Yuccas from Mexico, by Wm. Hertrich; Francesco 
Franceschi, by John M. Tucker. 

The International Biohistorical Commission, of the International Union of Biologi- 
cal Sciences (International Council of Scientific Union in cooperation with UNESCO) 
released, August 21, 1953, report of the Current Organization and Aclivities of the 
Botanical Section. Subsections, Connnissious. and Coniniiltees of the International 
Union of Biological Sciences. The eight multigraphcd pages were compiled by C. 
Skottsberg, President, F. Verdoorn, Retiring Secretary, and J. Lanjouw, Secretary, 
p.tem. Correspondence concerning the report should be addressed to the Botanical 
Secretary, p.tem.. Professor J. Lanjouw, Botanical Museum, L. Nieuwstraat, Utrecht, 
Netherlands. Only material concerning the Biohistorical Commission and its Com- 
mittees should hereafter be sent to Dr. Verdoorn, Waltham 54, Mass., U.S.A. 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION 



Board of Trustees 

''^'"^ Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

■President Mrs. Harry J. Bauer 

-President ROBERT Casamajor 

^'tyer Howard A. Miller 

Manchester Boddy William Hertrich 

Ralph D. Cornell Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin John C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Thomas Fleming Samuel B. Mosher 

John Anson Ford Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Frits W. Went 



Russell J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Louis B. Martin Plant Physiologist 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Dewey E. Nelson Historical Curator 

Thelma G. Blanch ard Secretary 

Janet Wright Research and Library (part time) 



Annual Associate Membership S 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders Sl.OOO.OO or more 



ributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 




Vol. IV, No. I 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



Officers 1954 

President Fred W. Roewekamp 

Vice-President Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Sercetary George H. Spalding 

Treasurer Kenneth Bishop 

Executive Secretary Ronald B. Townsend 



William Beresford Percy C. Everett 

Manchester Boddy Earle E. Humphries 

Howard Bodger Mildred E. Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Alfred W. Roberts 

Ralph D. Cornell Ronald B. Townseni 



Robert Casamajor 
Henry R. Davis 
Hugh Evans 



Murray C. McNeil 
Manfred Meyberg 
Lovell Swisher, Jr. 
Roy F. Wilcox 



Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) . . . 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 



Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 3rd Thursday each month at Park and Recreation Building, 
18th and Toberman Streets, Los Angeles, California 

Box 688— Arcadia— California 
Telephone DOuglas 7-3444 



WINTER 1954 



Lasca Leaves 

Vol. IV JANUARY, 195-1 No. 

CONTENTS 

Francesco Francesclii John M. Tucker 

Bromeliacis for the Southern California Garden Victoria Padiila 

Two Interesting Yuccas from Mexico William Hertrich : 

Gardening with Woody Plants V. T. Stoutemyer : 

Hardy Tropicals for the Sun Philip Edward Chandler ] 

"The Robin": verse Emily Dickinson 1 

Growing Notes George H. Spalding ] 

Notes for the Horticulturist Mildred Mathias 1 

Arboretum Authorship 1 

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants 

Mildred Mathias 

Ocloinospcrnunu ,a;cunu Alfred Hottes 

Bird Notes W. Dan Quattlebaum 22 

"Thrushes ': verse Earle Wilson Baker 22 

Calendar 22 



I LLUSTRATIONS 



WINTER 1954 



3 



FRANCESCO FRANCESCHI 

John M. Tucker 




WINTER 1954 




LASCA LEAVES 




LASCA LEAVES 

GARDENING WITH WOODY PLANTS 



LASCA LEAVES 

HARDY TROPICALS FOR THE SUN 



LASCA LEAVES 




WINTER 1954 




LASCA LEAVES 



INTERNATIONAL CODE OF NOMENCLATURE 
FOR CULTIVATED PLANTS 



WINTER 1954 



21 




CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



. .Samuel Ayres, Jr. 
Mrs. Harry J. Bauer 
. .Robert Casamajor 
.Howard A. Miller 
Manchester Boddy John C. Macfarland 

Ralph D. Cornell Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 
John Anson Ford Harold F. Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer. 

William Hertrich Henry C. Soto 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Frank E. Titus 
Charles S. Jones Mrs. Herbert E. Waite 

Frits W. Went 



Vuc-Pn-.wde,^ 
Vn-e-Preuden 



Fred W. Roewekamp Mrs. Weston Walker 
Manfred Myberg 

LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM STAFF 

Russell J. Seibert Dir 

George H. Spalding Superiuten 

Louis B. Martin Plant Physiol 

W. QuiNN Buck Propa^ 

J. Thomas McGah PUwt Recc 

Dewey E. Nelson Historical Cu 

Thelma G. Blanchard Seer. 

Janet Wright Research and Library (part ti 



Annual Associate Membership S 5 .00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5,000.00 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



Officers 1954 

President Fred W. Roewekamp 

Vice-President Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Sercetary George H. Spalding 

Treasurer Kenneth Bishop 

Executive Secretary Ronald B. Townsend 



William Beresford Percy C. Everett 

Manchester Boddy Earle E. Humphrii 

Howard Bodger Mildred E. Mathia 

Philip Edward Chandler Alfred W. Robert: 

Ralph D. Cornell Ronald B. Townsei 



Samuel Ayres, Jr. 
Robert Casamajor 
Henry R. Davis 
Hugh Evans 



Murray C. McNeil 
Manfred Meyberg 
LovELL Swisher, Jr. 
Roy F. Wilcox 



memberships 

Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) . . . 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 



Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 3rd Thursday each month at Park and Recreation Building, 
18th and Toberman Streets, Los Angeles, California 



Box 688— Arcadia— California 



LASCA LEAVES 

on of the Southern California Hort 



LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM 



Mildred Mathias 
Russell J. Seidert 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara — Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Russell J. Seibert 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology PlERRE MillER 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. Quinn Buck 

Succulents Alfred C. Hottes 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. MuNZ 

Janet Wright, Editor 



SPRING 1954 



Lasca Leaoes 

Vol. IV APRIL, 1954 No. 2 

CONTENTS 

p ■ . ( V . J -ru ■ r^- • A7 1 (Ralph D. Cornell 27 

Pomts of Entry and The.r C.v.c Value ^ ^^^jj^^ 

"William Penn. Horticulturist" Editorial 29 

Botanical Gardens and Arboretums of the Past 

and Their Reconstruction Frans Verdoorn 30 

Commonly Cultivated Species of Fuchsias Alfred C. Hottes 36 

Leonhard Fuchs, M.D Kay Betts 39 

The California International Flower Show 1954 Charles Levitt 41 

Teddy Bears and Eucalyptus Ted Holderness 42 

Cover Picture 43 

Cnnniwowuf?/ ccniphnra: excerpt from Charles Francis Saunders' 

writings 43 

Growing Notes George H. Spalding 44 

Bird Notes W. Dan Quattlebaum 45 

Charles Gibbs Adams 45 

Dr. Ephraim Hareubeni H. R. Oppenheimer 46 

Names, Notes and News 46, 47 

Calendar 47 

Book Reviews and Comments 48 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
Court of the Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles: 

Landscape Architect's Drawing 26 

Scratchboard Sketches: Fuchsias, by Alfred C. Hottes 37, 38 

Leonhardt Fuchs: portrait 40 

Acacia carJiophylla in full bloom 44 



LASCA LEAVES 




SPRING 1954 



Thes 



POINTS OF ENTRY AND THEIR CIVIC VALUE 

Ralph D. Cornell and Howard E. Troller, Ut>idscape Architects 
^FiRST and last impressions that a All landscape design is three-dim 

ing a pretty, two-dimensional drawing 
paper. It is deeply influenced by top 
and en- raphy, land uses to which areas shall 
ndelible put, soil, drainage, grading, climate. 



through the portals of our cities which, in which are a highly important part of the 
their turn, may serve as the gateway end product in average landscape plan- 
through which peoples of other countries ning, may be a very small part in the per- 
enter our land. centage cost of the work. It all depends 

; the upon the type of work and upon whether 
; problem is one of planting in a more 



public highways. He observes the public 
buildings, parks and parkways and the 



with the larger aspects of plar 
pressions \hat they create, again, be- "'"Ks that include much more than th 
ne very important in the complex, mo- selection and placing of plants. 
: picture that visitors and citizens, alike, The planning design of public 



• these impressions 
nly are they p.sy- 



cjuality 



chologic and aesthetic but they reflect work. Public landscaping should be more 

equally in hard dollar-and-cents economy pleasing after a hundred years than it is 

Ignored. plays a more important part in the design 

' ning of the points of entry of Public spaces than it does in gardens 

its highways and city plan, o^" small, commercial work. And yet the 



)r Its highways and city plan, - — ........a. 

and parkways and the spaces P^^"/ T "^I'l tL':''^.uf ' 
: buildings, preser 
lem. There are coi 
sidered if such pla 
nd is to serve the 



pronged problem. TheTe aVe countIess7ac- will live and thrive for hund^reds of years, 
tors to be considered if <:iirKi niannina i« ^r. Architecture, masonry and ground forms 



day that work is finished and, 

rn^^'d^^'^ ^plane necessary to satisfy de- calamity, will^ stand more or les 

"civilized" living!"suct r^^t^ters^^ne^ pLwtin^^ of a trce^iutrnduces 

are too technical to be expanded in a brief p-oin>,i^ element mto the compo 
article of this nature, written for a horti- ' ''"'^ \orn, that will chanf^e 

cultural publication. For that reason we ""^^ '''' V 

shall perhaps, stress the planting phase /'/^"/'^^ '"'^^ I"' " ''''>"J^ 

ot planning more than some of the other " ^KK^ ( ' "A' ) '"/^ ''^ 

factors which really may be more basically A""^'^' '"''^ f'^'^'"') ^^'f ^''"K" 

undamental to good landscape design cencen ed in the planner s mind. 
han is the single phase of adding plants Landscape planning of public 

to the picture after the plan pattern has largely influenced by the functioni 

heen established. of circulation, use, community cul 



LASCA LEAVES 



of buildi 

As the architectural profession largely has 
shaken off the habit of eclectic design so, 
too, should the landscape plan eliminate 
stylized formality, abstract frivolities or 
naturalistic confusion that lose the real 
meaning and purpose for its being. Public 
buildings should not be the background 
for botanical experimentation. 

In many cases of public work the archi- 

ture and thus should generate the mood 
as well as the motif for the design of the 
relatively small spaces about them. The 
landscape pattern should be painted 
broadly with ground covers and lawns and 
controlled plant masses. Form should be 
defined by shrubs, and trees should articu- 
late space. Mass effects become far more 
important as emphasis than do individual 
plant specimens or foliage forms. Proper 
juxtaposition of masses may achieve inter- 
est and emphasis. These points are well 
illustrated by the planting along the 
Spring Street side of the Federal Building 
in Los Angeles. 

All materials and elements selected for 
use in public work should be of good 
quality, even though initial cost may be 
high, since they should be able to serve 
and endure through many years. This 
truism holds particularly in the choice of 
plant materials, which should be hardy in 
situations where used. For the most part 
they should be long-lived and should re- 
quire a minimum amount of coddling for 
proper growth and development. First 
cost is capitalized, written off, and for- 
maintenance goes on forever. 



gott 



lamentably dependen 



ment and lasting quality. If materials of 
good quality are to remain just that and 
are to express intent of the design, they 
must be properly maintained with a com- 
prehension and understanding of those 
things envisioned by the designer. 

If the planting of public areas, chiefly 



sound, basically and structurally 
not be considered lightly as cm 
on a garment or the feather in th 
should be rich and meaty, fully 
and substance in its textures, c( 
massing. It is the thing of whii 
of the design is built. Interest 
cultural novelties, at the expense- 
design, can ruin an area as quickl 
any other lack in understanding 
principles of design. The novelty 



for such accents but no plantii 
should become a collection of 
each one shouting for individual i 
tion. Plants are not the end result 
lie planting, they are one means 
end and ought to be treated as )i 



"But let's have color, lots ( 



: choa 



"The city needs r 



that 



fraught with countless hazarcis. 
takes more than just color to create 
Billboards can be very colorful wit 
aesthetic touch in their entire frai 
Color in planting must be handl 
intelligently and skillfully if its 
possibilities are to be realized, siiu 
design and composition call for 
skill as do the many other clcn 
composition that go into any ^ 
creation. The danger is that m 
color, alone, may blind one to t 
values, loss of which impairs an 
the best results that might U 
with color. So again, color shoui 
thought of merely as tinsel or tro 
the cake, but as an integral part 
fundamental melange of subtlcti 
which a skillful designer draws n 
of his trade and assembles then 
well-knit and unified creation. So. 
specimen plants, it is well to axoi 



SPRING 1954 29 




30 



LASCA LEAVES 



BOTANICAL GARDENS AND ARBORETUMS OF THE 
PAST AND THEIR RECONSTRUCTION 

Frans Verdoorn 



Botanical Gardens, i.e., gard 
which plants are grown for educati( 
experimental, rather than for orna 
or utilitarian purposes are almost as 



For centuries they were the centre 
tanical and much other biological r 
thereby playing an important r61< 
history of biology. 

generations is not onl) 
stimulating but useful for many pui 



today's bota 



All this is not as easy as it soun 
ot want to collect some odds i 
)me amusing anecdotes ; we are 



an accurate and somewhat continuous pic- 
ture of the development of the gardens of 
the world generally, and of our own gar- 
den in particular. Now the history of any 
scientific subject, in our case the history 
of botanical gardens, is not just a combi- 
nation of history, on the one hand, and of 

ture, on the other hand. Ins^tead of dealing 



or dead, 



■ have to de; 



understand 
as and arboretums 
really understand 
any subject of pure or applied biology, 

development through the ages. To appre- 
ciate a modern botanical garden and to 
evaluate its future possibilities we have to 
know about its history, about the life and 
work of those who were concerned with 
it before our time, about the history and 
use of the land before the establishment 
of the garden in question and, last but not 
least, about the origin and history of the 
plants grown in the garden. 



note books and other papers. These tell us, 
itidirectly, about the gardens, their pLmts, 
and their workers of the past. This means 
that we have to follow the approach of the 
humanist rather than that of the biologist. 
This was not so difficult fifty years ago, 
when all in charge of a botanical garden 
had been to a Latin School and trained in 
the humaniora. Today, we often have to 
make ourselves first acquainted with the 
method of the history of science and with 



ished I 



i held b 



SPRING 1954 



31 



are concerned with and publish this 

denTse ?n hirmemo?r"on'thTjardiT 
Plantes in Paris. 

Then we may follow the Biographical of botany and horticulture generally. Ex- 

Method. — We study our subject through perience has also shown that these activi- 

the life of those who played a major part ties, often in cooperation with a local his- 

in its development, baas becking ob- torical society, attract new collaborators as 

tained very good results with this method well as members, and funds which would 

in his account of the Leyden Botanic not have been available otherwise. It will 

The Enioueratitig Method.— yHJQVistiW academic as well as^ the nonLademic 
data we are able to find, mostly in chrono- members of the staff of any botanic gar- 
logical order, without deduction, without den. 

analysis, without too much philosophy. Besides, as we will discuss later, today's 

The Dogffiatic Method is often followe 
by beginners and historically not well edi 

cated colleagues. We gather all data we are 1 believe, will ftnd it wortn 

able to find and compare the resulting elude amongst its special gar( 

ating it according to current standards, past. These may be gardens 

and forgetting that present conditions will isted in the same region, or 

hardly last forever. they existed, and perhaps stil 

The Auecdotical Method.— sketch where (for the reconstructioi 

the development of a subject emphasizing foreign gardens, assistance c 

isolated, striking events and try to give obtained from regional or i 

thus pleasantly, in little space, the develop- cieties of citizens of foreign o 

ment of a subject. The method is often More important still, botam 

used in popular magazine articles dealing with their long history, often 

with gardens of the past and those who come reliquuie of former cen 

worked there. It has its merits and its than living, contemporary 

danger, and it has to be handled with great Through the lack of vision 

tare as most anecdotes are anything but charge or through their p 

authentic. with their personal projects. 

The Comparative 
all technicjues, exce 

suited to a specific 'subject. It places its half empty beds continued from a rormer 

subjects in their own time and leaves them generation, rusty, uninspiring greenhouses, 

there, studying the part they played in the etc. Yet, botanical gardens are living in- 

evolution of botany and horticulture. It stitutions, we must see them as links in a 

asks for much research and thought, and chain. How shall wt know, unless we are 

the method cannot be applied successfully geniuses (and geniuses split atoms, they 

unless bibliographical and enumerative do not work in orncir hotaiikal gardens), 

studies have previously been made. how the next links have to be molded. 

Now you will say— this is all very nice unless we are tamiliar with previous links? 

and I understand that I can get a some- Let us now go back to our gardens and 

wliat broader view of whatever gardens plants and let us briefly consider the de- 

n^ay interest me by studying their history, velopment of gardens. I do not say the 

Is It, however, really worth while to dig up development of hotauical gardens for it is 

all these old data? Will my effort be of often difficult to separate botanical gardens 

^"y real use? The answer is yes, emphati- from other gardens. In the 17th century 

cally yes. the projessors considered only their horti 



LASCA LEAVES 



macy, and by training a physician, show 
his students the plants hsted in th 
Pharmacopoeia. Other plants were son 
times grown, mostly interesting plai 
from abroad, often unusually bulbo 
plants, but rarely wild plants from near 



lal, gardens which pla 
ole in plant introduc 
inate us today often n 



Egyptian Garc^ens.—These are mostly 

divided, in a characteristic way, by little 
walls or rows of trees. Everything has 

imp^ression^tic'' tou?h °There '"s^'m'^'stly^ a 
sunken pool surrounded by decorated pots. 
Many plans have been published of 
smaller and larger gardens of this type by 
the Egyptologists and their reconstruction 

and the Northeastern U.S.A., they can be 
made with a slightly different kind of 
planting, but an Egyptian garden in the 



Italy during Roman times until after the 
return of pompey and others from Asia 
Minor. GRIMAL, in his recent Les J aid /us 
Romains has interesting data on all this. 

"The Persian Gardens, in classic times, 
were the forerunners of the later type so 
definitely developed by the Moslems. This 
Moslem or Mohammedan style probably 
reached its height in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries and again in India in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. The de- 
signs had an influence on the Mediaeval 
gardens in Europe, through contacts dur- 
ing the Crusades which were far-reaching 
in their results on European designs 

patterns, color, pools, pavilions, and other 
features. Moslem design principles are 
also dominant in the Spanish type with the 
enclosed courtyard or patio, like the gar- 
dens carried out in Persia during the same 



Japanese ga. 
; of the Nort 



prefe, 



rtheri 



As to other early gardens, I may quote 
from notes kindly made available to me by 
Professor D. W. Pond of Harvard Uni- 
versity: "The Greeks had two types of de- 
sign: first, the groves and naturalistic 
areas for their group gatherings and dis- 
cussions, and second, their private or 
house gardens which were the type of de- 
copied by the Romans at a later peri- 



In fa. 



, little V 



general period, some ot 
with their large, shallow p 
channels, and very chara 



the other." 

Of the various types of Roman Gardens, 
so well described by Plinius, Cato and 
Columella, atrium gardens are most 
easily reconstructed. They and their plants 
are beautifully shown on wall paintings in 
Pompeii, and worth-while reproducing in 
any subtropical region. The fine Roman 
villa gardens, like Plinius s Villa Tusc 



• types 



they can be 



Ro- 



ion of PLiNiUs'sVilla I us( 
_ , ^ , tly been made at the Un 
ersity of Cambridge, England. 
Much is known about the Medi.ui. 



SPRING 1954 



35 



If done properly, a Bible-plant garden Royal Horticultural Society's Show at 
should be primarily an ecological or plant Chelsea. North American Colonial gar- 
geographical reconstruction (for the spe- dens, ranging from the simple, fciucd 

vice, conflicting as it may be, will of course garden to the landscaped Southern gardens 
be essential). and the intriguing California monastery 
Prints of all older gardens should be gardens, offer the American botanical gar- 
examined and interpreted with care, each tl^ns rich possibilities which have hardly 
period does not only have its own style of been considered, as yet. Early European 
garden design, but also its own style of Farm and American Indian Gardens, 
reproduction. It is quite possible to draw simple as they may be, offer other possi- 
the same garden, let us say, a monastery bilities and tie in with other interests, 
garden, accurately according to three dif- The cost of the reconstruction and up- 
ferent styles, with the result that it may keep of historical gardens is high, often 
look on one drawing as an oriental garden, one will need extra funds and will have 
on ^he second one as a modern formal to interest groups which did not contnbiite 

Renaissance garden. This is just one of them possible. 

the many problems of historical criticism Recapitulating we may say: (1) it is 

to which I referred earlier. Much greater cjuite worth while to study the hi.storv of 

difficulties ari.se from the old planting lists, our own Botanical Garden and of other 

Scientific reconstruction demands that gardens of the past, (2) this study will 

ga^d'^^ " b °"l^ ".^ r""''''-^ T T^^\ "''''^.''"'^'"'j'*'"' ''''""^ 

study of Jafly'vaJietL.!'?n\'ertam\^^ profit all coiucriicd'. and ( S) ahoNc all. .t 

Other varieties, which are known from the will give us new ideas about the lutLii Y)! 

and English schools, have disappeared, tween the'living plants, the herbariiini. the 

Sometimes, they can be bred again but books, research, education and extension 

mostly we will have to use other, related work. 

varieties. This is not serious, as loiU as we A botanical garden or arboretum rt- 



it 1 ^"^ history ot early 

iistory of early cultivated plants that the 
^0 should always be considered together. 

There are many old and new types of 
"taller gardens, not referred to above, 
-f; Spanish and Mexican Patio Gardens, 
•vh.ch can be imitated easily and success- 



36 



LASCA LEAVES 



COMMONLY CULTIVATED SPECIES OF FUCHSIAS 

Alfred C. Hottes 




SPRING 1954 



37 




LASCA LEAVES 




SPRING 1954 



39 



in which case they sprout from the roots. 

7. F. baccillaris, Babyrose F. Flowers 
with rose sepals and petals; ]4 to % 
inches long; stamens included but pistil 
protrudes. Leaves small, less than an 
inch long; teeth sinuate. Fruits spherical, 
about 1^ inch in diameter. 

8. F. tbymifolia, Thymeleaf F. Flowers 
solitary, axillary, white to pink, about i/^ 
inch long; petals notched; sepals sharp- 
pointed, white turn red. Leaves opposite, 
sometimes alternate, ovate, blunt or sharp- 
tipped, 3 to 5 pairs of lateral veins, about 

^9. F. rosea (lycwJc/es), Rose F. Flow- 
ers purple-violet, about 1 inch long, axil- 
lary; sepals strongly reflexed ; very pro- 
fuse blooming ; tube and sepals more red- 
dish. Leaves oval to lanceshaped, more or 
less acute, entire, 1 inch long. The leaf 
bases are protruding, almost like prickles. 
One of the best tall Fuchsias for landscape 



10. F. p^oaniibem. Trailing F. Does 




ovate, generally alternate, % inch long, 
of an olive. Makcs'goo^l hangin.i: basket. 



F. arhortsit'us ( .nrn/ i^uv jlnyj) . Lil.u I-', 
(not illustrated. ) Tlic casual c)hscr^u■ do.s 

treelike shrub from Mexico. sonKlinKs 

of foliage and floJer clusters suggestive 
of Lilacs. The branches, petioles, and veins 

or purplish, only I/2 inch long, produced 
in erect, terminal panicles, from January 
to April. The leaves are opposite, or in 
threes, lanceshaped, oblong, to 8 inches 



LEONHARD FUCHS, M.D. 



BoTANiziNc; was becoming popular in the 
tl nt > T lers, venturing 
'nco strange lands, were fascinated with 
the new and exotic flora they discovered 
and proudly presented what seeds and 
plants were obtainable to the royal gardens 
01 their homeland. 

"Superstitions surrounding herbs and 
Howers were fast being dispelled by sci- 
entific data. Simples were losing their 
signatures." 

To four great German scientists of this 
^ge we accredit the title— Fathers of Bota- 
ny: Brunfels, Jerome Bock (Hieronymous 
^■■agus), Fuchs, and Valerius Cordus. 

Reared by a nature-loving grandfather, 
young Leonhard Fuchs enjoyed his early 
boyhood learning the names and growing 
habits of wild flowers about the village of 
Wemding, Bavaria. Having exhibited 
jare scholastic tendencies by the age of 
ten, he was considered ready to enter the 
^thool of Meister Conrad in Heinbronn 



Leon 



old ' 



was admitted to the University of Erfurt. 
Four years later when he received his de- 

^Still yearning for greater knowledge, he 
entered the Medical School at the Uni- 
versity and graduated as Doctor of Medi- 
cine in 1524— then only 23! For the 

practicing physician, Professor of Medi- 

His early love of flowers, now enriched 
by scientific crcd^-nda, became the guidi^ng 



42 



LASCA LEAVES 



' TEDDY BEARS AND EUCALYPTUS" 

Ted Holderness 

As A CHILD I had one, a Teddy Bear, that aspect of the Koalas. Nearly their entire 
is, and most adults today remember these life cycle of 20 years is spent high atop 
cuddly little toy animals playing a promi- the swaying upper framework of the Eu- 
nent part in their young childhood. calyptus. Not only does this Genus serve 

Today in the San Diego Zoo may be as home but also provides the Koala its 
seen an exhibition of these little animals entire dietary requirements. They feed ex- 
in the flesh. Young and old alike who visit clusively on the tender young shoots and 
these furry little creatures are immediately leaves of certain varieties from which they 



lem. Their impassive, yet also are supplied their water needs. 



ng, qui2 



; habits do 



lovable temperament elicit explanations of varieties but ■ 
them. 



behind these As the two basic requirements necessary 
Teddy Bears 'and their introduction into in moving them halfway around the world 
the San Diego Zoo is the purpose of this to a new habitat were climate and avail- 
article . . . ability of food, these were the primary 
It has been a keen desire of Mrs. Belle factors of the project. Obviously the mild 
Benchley, Director of the San Diego Zoo, climate of our own San Diego completely 
to include in their extensive collection an solved the first requirement. The second 
exhibition of the Australian Koalas as they one consisted of supplying the proper 
properly called. It has been my plea- varieties of Eucalyptus both for food and 



s Eucalyptus coniuta var. Lehmaui 



Mrs. Benchley for many years and I had 

heard her enthusiastically dream of Koalas available in the immed 

perched in the Eucalyptus trees of the Zoo. Koalas readily ate its tender foliage p 

By coincidence, and through our friends the fact that its mature size is moderate 

at Paramount Studios I heard of a forth- was decided to use this Eucalyptus as 

coming production called "Botany Bay," Koalas first home and breadbasket 



xploration of Captain Cook, 
• of Australia 



South Wales. Mrs. Benchley and the Pro- could see them at close range as they 
duction Department of Paramount were placidly munching their Eucalyptus sal 
introduced and together the project got So a special compound was provu 



Koal 



1 gov. 



on them in the early 20"s. The details of lo box and transplant z inaiuiv 

how this was worked out by Mrs. Benchley averaging 35'-4()' in height and 

and the Studio Management and the many was the next order, with the provisi 

cooperative people in Australia is far too course, that such transplanting woi. 

involved for this paper. The important fact sure the continued growth ot the trc ^ 
is that they were generously shipped to the Here is an example ot the old saw _ 

U.S. under the care of San Diego Zoo. "Fools rush in where angels tear to 

To leave the field of Zoology and take —and so we did. 
up the interest of the readers of this News- The two trees selected were thinned out 

letter, we will recount the Horticultural in their secondary framework approxi-i 



44 



LASCA LEAVES 




LASCA LEAVES 
NAMES, NOTES AND NEWS 



DR. EPHRAIM 

Professor H. R. 
Faculty of Agrnultu 
Dr. Ephraim Hareubeni (Rubinovitch) 
t the He- 



Biblical and Talmudic 
brew University. His 
biblical and botanical, 



Hareubeni immigrated, as it seems, 
e beginning of the century. Wander- 
ibout in the arid south, the Hauran, 
in Palestine both east and west of the 
in, he acquired an unusual knowledge 
)th wild and cultivated plants, and of 
abits and language of the rural popu- 
1. Thus he became competent to in- 
et debatable plant 



nbolic 



in the 



:ed the Hebrew 
copus in the th 



astic falsetto. Togethei 
able companion, Mrs. Hannah Han 
he worked indefatigably in his san 
the Museum of Biblical Botany 
formed one of the main attractioi 
local and foreign visitors. Here the 

tion of dried plant specimens prt 



HAREUBENI 

■e, Rehovot, Israel 



loped a specia ^ ^ 

rainy seasons and with the specific diseases 
and insects parasitizing it. In addition to 

plant a "Garden of the Prophets" includ- 
ing all the species mentioned in the Bible^ 

ture and life contrasted sharply witli that 

tists educated in the rationalistic spirit of 
western civilization, though this spirit was 

had studied botany and graduated from 
the University of Lausanne and others. 
This modern attitude is probably more 
scientific in the proper sense of the word, 
but lacks the emotional merits and attrac- 
tiveness to wider, popular circles, simple 
friends of nature for whom Ephraim 
Hareubeni's death means an irreparable 
loss. It is also often deplorably dull, ex- 
cept with an intellectual elite which is 
both critical-exact and inspired by strong 
emotional stimuli. 

Hareubeni's theories about plant names, 
etc., were not always convincing, but as a 
botanist, he possessed great merits. He 
was a keen observer noticing a thousand 

of others. ^Falling in love with his plants, 
he studied them at all hours of the day^ 

book, "Thesaurus plantarum" are remark- 
able for their artistic beauty. His inquisi- 
tive mind and pioneering energy led h.m 
on untrodden paths and, still as an old 

climb an old sycamore tree in a populated 
street of Tel Aviv, '1^^''' ™' 'dons 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



'es/deiii Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

ice-Presideiit Mrs. HaRRY J. Bauer 

ue-Presideni Robert Casamajor 

'-easurtr Howard A. Miller 

Manchester Boddy John C. Macfarland 

Ralph D. Cornell Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 
John Anson Ford Harold F. Roach 

J. D. Funk Mrs. William D. Shearer 

William Hertrich Henry C. Soto 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Frank E. Titus 
Charles S. Jones Mrs. Herbert E. Waite 

Frits W. Went 



Mrs. Weston Wali 



Russell J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding SupertiiteticJent 

Louis B. Martin Phwt Physiologist 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Dewey E. Nelson Historical Curator 



G. Blanchard Secretary 



Janet Wright Research and Library (part t 



Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5,000.00 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 



LASCA LEAVES 



LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM 



William Hertrich Russell J. Seibert 

Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock: 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California— Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Russell J. Seibert 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Succulents Alfred C. Hottes 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. MuNZ 

Janet Wright, Editor 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



Officers 1954 

President Fred W. Roewekamp 

Vice-President Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Sercetary George H. Spalding 

Treasurer Kenneth Bishop 

Executive Secretary Ronald B. Townsend 



William Beresford Percy C. Everett 

Manchester Boddy Earle E. Humphries 

Howard Bodger Mildred E. Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Alfred W. Roberts 

Ralph D. Cornell Ronald B. Townsend 

Richard Westcott 



Robert Casamajor 
Henry R. Davis 
Hugh Evans 



Murray C. McNeil 
Manfred Meyberg 
Lovell Swisher, Jr. 
Roy F. Wilcox 



Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) . . . 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 



Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 3rd Thursday each month at Park and Recreation Building, 
18th and Toberman Streets, Los Angeles, California 



Box 688— Arcadia— California 
Telephone DOuglas 7-3444 



SUMMER 1954 



Lasca Leaves 



Vol. IV 



JULY, 1954 



CONTENTS 

Notable Trees in Southern California Mildred Mathias 51 

Early Days in the Los Angeles Park Department Frank Shearer 52 

Weather Record, L. A. State & County Arboretum 56 

Weather Record, University of California, L. A 56 

Air Layering Experiments at Wisley 

F. E. W. Hanger, V. M. H., A. Ravenscroft 57 

Plant Patents Explained Louis Cutter Wheeler 62 

Cover Picture S. B. D. 64 

Os//,s and Its Response to Fire . . Louis B. Martin, Marcella Juhrens 65 
Progress of the Daylily Test Garden at Los Angeles State 

and County Arboretum W. Quinn Buck 68 

Names, Notes and News 69 

Growing Notes George H. Spalding 70 

Book Review Howard Asper 70 

Calendar 71 

Book Notes Mildred Mathias 72 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

f^^ge/ia pnniala. The Sausage Tree 

Air Layering 

Cistus Planting: experimental burning 

Daylily Display Border 



SUMMER 1954 



51 



NOTABLE TREES IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

I. THE SAUSAGE TREE, {Kigelhi [>ni>niLi) 



The trees are about 20-25 feet tall with 
broad spreading crowns. The leaves may 
be as much as two feet long and they arc 

site leaflets and a termind leaflet. The 
leaflets are stiflF and a medium green color. 
They fall in early spring to be followed 



the sausage tree, a member of the Bignoni 
Family. A tree on the road from Coconi 
Grove to Cutler, Florida, and another o 
the campus of the University of Hawa 
have been widely publicised but not man 
people know of the two producing sauj 
age trees on the campus of the Universit 
of California, Los Angeles. These tw 
trees were planted about sixteen years ag 
from seed sent from Honolulu by Mi 

Ralph Cornell. They first flowered in 1947 Flowers begin to appear in July and flow- 
and three "sausages" were produced that ering continues into September. The in- 
year by hand pollination. Since 1948 the dividual flowers are somewhat bell- 
nowers have been pollinated every sum- shaped, 4-5 inches in diameter, a mahog- 
"Kr by botanists at the University and the any or reddish-purple color, and are borne 
'as'^i ^ continuous crop of "saus- in groups on long dangling flower stalks. 

Ji'-riptive of the fruits or sausages which tropical forests of West Afrka. It is 
liang from the spreading branches. They often planted in the interior of Afrk.i 
-ire not produced here unless the flowers where both flowers and fruits are re- 



t p: 

nd-pollinated, d: 
pollinating agent which functions in 

^ross-pollination, pollen from flow^ers of 
one tree placed on the receptive stigmas 
or nowers of the other tree, are somewhat 
4'nndncal and may reach a length of 18- 
inches and a weight of 10-12 pounds, 
c pollinated with pollen from the 

' frequently peai 



garded as a fetish. In Nigeria the fruit is 
sold in markets and used medicinally. It 
has been used as a dye and is supposed to 

ported that in Africa bats pollinate the 
night-blooming flowers. Another story is 

bite the ends of Sie fruits and let tiie 



about 



this 



Oc- 



casionally the tree produces sausages pol- 
I'nated presumably by an insect or a 
numming-bird observed getting nectar 
.^om the flowers. These accidental pollina- 



h 1 ^^^'^'^^^^^ °"ly in those fruits 
uit IS extremely woody and fibrous and 
'^'^t be cut with a saw. The seeds are 
l^'^eddcd in the fiber. They germinate 
'I'J'ly and the young trees grow rapidly, 
sausage is not edible although the 



LASCA LEAVES 



EARLY DAYS IN THE LOS ANGELES PARK 
DEPARTMENT 

Frank Shearer^ 



When the writer joined the Park De- 
partment in 1910, Los Angeles covered an 
area of 80 square miles, bounded on the 



The city had 
Spring,' • 



ad four paved streets, Main, 
d Broadway from Temple 
D 9th Street, and Baudry Street from 
Temple Street to Sunset Boulevard. 

The population was about 300,000; 

city and surrounding territory and the 
Auto Club of Southern California had 
just been established a short time previous 
to 1910. The city was governed by a 
Mayor and five Councilmen, elected at 
large ; the Council met once a week. There 
were 3 telephones in the city: one in the 
City Hall, one at Eastlake Park, and one 
at Westlake Park. The Owens Valley 
Aqueduct had been started two years pre- 
viously and was about one-third com- 

Los Angeles County Supervisors had 
issued $3,000,000.00 in road bonds to 
build 300 miles of County roads— these 
roads were 20 feet wide, composed of rock 
and oil, and the speed limit was 20 miles 



Due 



nded, takir 



Griffith Pari 

joints and the former city boundar- 
es. San Pedro and Wilmington were tied 
by way of a shoestring strip one mile 
de, running north from Wilmington 
ough part of Gardena and connecting 
:h the extended south city boundary at 



t which time he was compelled 



cityt 

3,000 a'cres, donated by Col. 
Grithth ; Eiysian Park about 700 acres, part 
of the original Pueblo; Sycamore Grove, 
acquired by condemnation to get rid of a 
beer garden; Lincoln Park (formerly East- 
lake Park), exchanged with So. Pac. R.R. 
Co. for other land; Hazard Park do- 
nated by former Mayor Hazard, two 
blocks from Lincoln Park ; Prospect Park, 
oldest park in the city, history unknown 
to the writer; Hollenbeck Park, donated 
jointly by Mrs. Hollenbeck and ex-Mayor 
Workman ; South Park, acquired by bond 
issue— 110,000.00 for 20 acres; Echo 
Park, greater area in lake, formerly^ the 

Park, part of the original Pueblo lands; 
Lafayette Park (formerly Sunset Park), 
four blocks from Westlake, poorly lo- 
cated; Pershing Square (formerly Central 
Park), part of the original Pueblo lands; 
Plaza— where Los Angeles was founded; 
St. James Park, donated by subdividers; 
Terrace Park, donated by subdividers; 
several triangles and street parkways, such 
as Occidental Boulevard, the center Park- 
way of which was dedicated for Park use, 
and has to be maintained largely for the 
benefit of abutting property owners. In 
1910, the Park system was only partly de- 
veloped due largely to lack of money, 
equipment, and water. The organization 
was poor ; surveys and plans were made in 
the City Engineer's office, usually delayed; 
there were ninety men employed m the 
Parks and the work was largely planting 
and maintenance. The Park Board met 

1909, 



the Mayor resigned ; 
under the auspices o 
ment League, and sw 



uphea^ 



SUMMER 1954 



53 



the Arroyo Seco with acquisition for a 

lecting a Superintendent of Parks,' which 
position was vacant, the Park Board and 
the Secretary read and considered over two 
hundred and fifty apphcations for the po- 
sition ; the Landscape Engineer's original 



and improved sprinkling devices, etc. 
That the new program might gain im- 
fjetus, the City Council approved a resolu- 

the particular parks who showed the hii:h- 

bronze plaque, so stating, was placed at^a 

The Park Board and the Superintendent 
made the three-monthly inspections. 
Notwithstanding all the good inten- 



apphc 



ed to fill t 



;red and he 
. The first ordei 

. The^ Secretary 



months at night, arranging a'^filing, book- 
keeping, and recording system, together 
with files for maps and plans. 



er haphazard manne 
instance, with 3,000 a 



; South Park 1 
ic units of w( 
'In Park wit 



called for ; 
twenty-six 
n called f 
the Depart 



maintenance had been reduced over Jorty 

shape than before the new regime was 
adopted. The Park Board applied to the 
City Council for authority to spend the 
forty-per cent saving on permanent bet- 
terments. Boat House, Comfo ' 



Tennis Courts, and other struct 
City Council who dominated 

s^a*id'^"NO!"— that ff^the^Park Bo 



? of them had 
order to rem- 
ig of all Park 



these inquiries, a unit of work was estab- 
lished covering the various types of Park 

Considerable resentment was expressed 
^vhen it was found that Westlake had 
^^■•^'"ty-six men, while the units of work as 



ng money pri 
aled, and the 
tendent were 



The 



: Board 
idy ac- 
F trying 



to make a reput 
men. (Note: th 

Pershing Squ; 



tions in bad shape, people taking she 
:s through flower beds from corner 
:ner diagonally. ... It was decided 
ike it a "passing-through park," with 



LASCA LEAVES 



Park lawns, including the Golf Courses 
and the mountain slopes in Griffith and 
Elysian Parks. (Special note: as a result 

of Pershing Square, the writer is compelled 

: passing- 

rounding plantmg with walks and seats is 
very appropriate; Pershing S(|uare now 
provides beautiful breathing space, and 

the City.) 

Space does not permit of detailed enu- 
meration of all the projects undertaken 
by the Construction Division of the Park 
Department. The Conservatories in Lin- 
coln Park were built when this park was 
the principle attraction in the days when 
people travelled by street car; later the 
people went farther afield, due to the in- 
creased number of automobiles, and in- 
terest in the Conservatories faded; they 
were later turned into a Recreation Center, 
and no doubt, as such render a service to a 
greater number of people. The first swim- 
ming pools were built by the Park De- 
fort Stations. ' ' om 

In 1910, the City made a contract with 
the State for fifty years, with an option of 
fifty years more, for all of Exposition 
Park (formerly Agricultural Park), not 
occupied by structures belonging to the 
State and Los Angeles County, agreeing 
to spend not less than $10,000.00 a year 
on upkeep; and T' ' 



garden. The Park Department built the 

Light-house at Point Firmin when it was 
under the U.S. Department of Commerce. 
The Park Department also built the Fire 
Boathouse at the Harbor, this being the 

that type of construction; and it was 
handed a $2,^00,000.00 order to build a 
series of Fire Stations:— it began to look 
like -the tail wagging the dog,' so an 
application to the Council to be relieved 
of this work was granted. The Building 
and Construction Division of the Park 

unXTthe BoarTofTJblif WoX ' ( Note 
This work for other departments had 
been carried on by the Park Department 
for ten years, doing about $150,000.00 
worth of work annually.) 

Following the surveys made in Grithth 
Park, road building was start 



.ide, 



able interest. Senator Flint adopted tl 
plan for the subdivision of Flint nd^ 

County adopted the method and specific 
tions for the road through Topanga Ca 
yon; and the Federal Forestry Departme 
turned over the building of a road t ro 
Pasadena by way of the Arroyo Seco 
Oakwild, to the Park Department. 11 
latter donated the use of a steam -sho\ 
for the project. These roads have .i li\ 
per cent grade on sharp curves, a. 
seven- to ten-per cenl on the strn-l 
away. (Note: The roads in Griffith^ Fa 

six feet, allowing for two lines o( mo\ti 



SUMMER 1954 



55 




SUMMER 1954 



57 



AIR LAYERING EXPERIMENTS AT WISLEY* 



tings, yet there are notoriously obdurate and greenhouse plants. It consisted of 

plants such as Acers, Abeliophyllum, Mag- damaging or cutting a stem of a plant and 

which are so difficult to root as to make injured part, the compost sometimes being 

the whole operation not only unprofitable held in position with string or^a ^flower 

During the last two years, 1952 and terial. Constant attention was necessary 

1953, experiments have been carried out to keep the moss or soil continually moist, 

in the Gardens at Wisley to test air layer- when rooting usually occurred. This 

ing as a means of overcoming this diffi- watering of necessity had to be under- 

ulty. The mysterious plastic film containers taken several times ^a day even^whtn in a 

shrubs in various parts of *the Gardens attention would not be possible with out^ 

I cilows. Queries have been so numerous the new plastic films have been the means 

that it has been decided to publish this of providing air-tight conditions and thus 

'^rtKle giving brief details of the infor- retaining the moisture within until the 

mation so far obtained from our experi- layer is sufficiently rooted. 

For the amateur who is interested in ^fter the recent world war extcnsnc 

he propagation of plants and where the experiments with the new plastic films to 

'tne factor is not of paramount impor- , 'i^.^ the adhesive bandage in air laycr- 

fance, air layering has its appeal and can -^^ practices were carried out in various 

t^f made the means of producing many a ^^^^ the United States of America, es- 

^^^'Pluate ot some rare and beautiful plant pecially at the Arnold Arboretum where 

^^iiuh may eventually be presented to excellent results were claimed with the 

MJmc- triend or made to adorn another part „ew plastic film "Polyethylene." This ma- 

the garden. During these days of high ^^^i^i widely used for packing food- 

abor costs the time involved will make ^^^ff^ cannot be bettered for the trans- 

posTtiol/b IT*^'"^ portation of cuttings and^ small pknts 

ibly strong. 



nd do n 



hard to propagate vege- 



sd. "Polyethylen 
ic film sold in tl 
;s "Alkathene' 
•Polythe 



: There are a confusing number of plastic 



LASCA LEAVES 



ing wrapped around the 
plastic film also tends to 
en subjected to constant 
on. Thicknesses of seven 

nbk miking 



t.ght ■ 



film haj 



■■ Polyethylene 



ficult subjects by air 
assisted by the fact t 
deciduous varieties' 



of W: 



plants (especially 
re beginning to 
titer rest. The soft 



nder the wrapping, and 



mid-summer growths of trees and shrubs 
are difficult to manage. A large majority 
of the young growths flag and suffer con- 
siderably, many of them withering and al- 

20 mc es ^^^^ 



(about the size of a lead pencil) 
vary according to the type of tree or shrub 



cring trees and shrubs. Tubular 1 
terial is obtainable and this over 
e of the difficulties of the process 

L-rlap of the bandage enclosing th 

; two ends to be secured by ele 



"Polyethylene" pla 



sily be 



cient seal may be obtained by using a gas 
flame. The best method is to place the flat 

the edges to be sealed to protrude by 
approximately 1/2 inch. Direct the flame 
on the exposed edges until the Polv- 



the plant. The entrance of the cut 

and to the side of a leaf axil, leavi 
axil on the tongue of the cut and 
sonable distince from the apex 
shoot — approximately 6 to 12 inch( 
to be governed by the thickness 
stem. When this work is carried 
advised during April, the propapit 

and thus making the operation^ n 

moval of a complete circle of bark 
the stem, proved to be far less sue 
than the upward longitudinal cut 
the circular bark method c 
through breakages, caused by the 



SUMMER 1954 



59 




SUMMER 1954 



containing 8,000 p. p.m. I.B.A. gave by The various species and varieties of 
far the best^ results ; yet this strength did Acer require different strengths of growth- 
callus) on a number of plants. The success palmatum atropurpineuL need I. B. A 
obtained by these initial efforts encour- as strong as 30,000 p. p.m. witli tlie hel[- 
aged us to continue the experiment for of which they root readily. 1. B. A. al 



of which they root reidily 1 B A 

— - --"ov^.., uc..iig iiiueii Stronger 20,000 p. p.m. will assist the n 

growth substances than the I.B.A. Acers to root quite successfully 

The makers also arranged to help by layered, 
making up nine preparations containing The stronger concentrations of 
the following concentrations: T) at 10,000 p.p.m. and those of 

1. Indolyl-butyric acid (a 15,000 p.p.m. 

2. Indolyl-butyric acid (« 20,000 p.p.m. 

3. Indolyl-butyric acid (w 30,000 p.p.m. 

4. (2:4:5-T) 2 :4: 5-Trichiorophenoxy acid (« 100 p.p.m. 

5. (2;4:5-T) 2:4:5-Trichlorophenoxy acid (a 1,000 p.p.m. 

6. (2:4:5-T) 2:4: 5-Trichlorophenoxy acid C« 10,000 p.p.m. 

7. (2:4:5-TP) « (2:4:5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (a 100 

8. (2:4:5-TP) a (2 :4: 5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid {a l.OOO 

9. (2:4:5-TP) « (2:4: 5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid {a lO.ooo 
By using this wide range of growth sub 

stances it was hoped to find a suitabi 
strength to encourage the rooting of th 
more difficult plants which failed to roc 

^ith the commercially available regula u,cu, auu wuu ...^.iy uu.ei ^^w^^a u.^ 
rors. It was fully realized that the high- became dwarfed and distorted. Some lay 



life but 



night be injurious to ers produ 



^^T h f — h^ • 1 

(especially the Magnolias) completely 
died, and with many other genera they 
became dwarfed and distorted. Some lav- 



the upper limits of the plants' en- roots were thick and fleshy and wl 

fiurance to growth substances. With the spected appeared to ha^'e no root 

ronger strength Magnolias particularly attached, 
produced an abundance of very thick conclusion 

^^'■"^tures. _ Sections of these ^o date it has not been possible 



io\\ ed them to be typical 



dodendron genus to growth-pn 



'fider showing 11 to 12 strands of primary 

xylem alternating with small groups of substances when air lay( 

phloem. There was no sign of root hair has been accomplished 

development and this may explain the .^^u^a carefully and acc 
reason why it has often been reported that ''''^"7, '"/^ 

^"ttmgs rooted with the aid of growth- '"^"^'-^^'^"^ mdolylbutyr, 

promoting substances fail to grow aua\ '^^ amongst acce 

satisfactorily. This may be due to the Lick i:rox\th when plants are a 

ot root hairs on roots produced with the exer, much research worl 

a.d of too powerful growth regulators. before we can solve mar 
T. Roses which failed to root with , ^ 



LASCA LEAVES 



PLANT PATENTS EXPLAINED 

Louis Cutter Wheeler 



that it is better; it is supposed that the 

few years, a patented variety which failed 
to prove itself superior would probably 
fall in price to the level of unpatented 
competitors unless the prevailing public 
faith in things patented offset the twin 
disadvantages for higher price and lack of 
superiority. With so large and unorgan- 



ally enjoy a profitable 



Plants customarily propagated by seeds 
are excluded. This is biologically sound 
since asexually propagated plants, i.e., 
those propagated by budding, grafting, 
slipping, layering ,dividing, or by bulblets 
or cormlets growing from bulbs or corms, 
show a minimum of variation and a popu- 

tained. Sexually- (including seed-) propa- 
gated plants may vary rather freely; the 
characteristics of the variety may change 
through the years as the producer selects, 
or otherwise modifies it, and spontaneous 
production of mixtures with other varie- 

sect-carried pollen. Hence administration 
of patents on seed-propagation plants 

Another group of excluded plants is 
the tuber-propagated plants. Apparently 
Congress objected to patenting varieties 
of the white potato. The interpretation of 



a plant patent it is 
• patenting of plai 



and new variety of plant, other 
tuber-propagated plant, may obtai 
ent therefor which shall grant to 



short, thickened, under 

oriented axis.While ordir 
ly distinguished from i 



of 



the distinctions are usually pretty c 

Plants propagated by large flesl 
can be patented even though, as 
case of the sweet potato, they may 



) plants lies in the no man's land 
law and biology, and some of the 
srpretations are biologically be- 
Certain aspects of the law are. 



SUMMER 1954 



63 



or described in any to examine the growing plant. O 

ountry prior to the in- of competent witnesses may be tak 

ry by the would-be consideration. 

public use or on sale if you find a new kind of plant 



lan a year prior to the application f 

The act specifically excludes patentir 
f a new "variety" found growing spo 



t explorer 
t. The logic 



his simplified exposition of the successfully asexually reproduced i 
legal aspects of the law. It will vention exists, and no valid appl 
say that apparently wild plants can be made though apparently ma 



conception of invention" in 
se. Until the plant has been 



classification of a "phenomenon or law of without these prerequisites, and patents 

nature," and as such are basically unpat- have been granted. The validity of the 

entable, else someone might patent any patent may never be questioned, but 

nomenon. However, in the attempt to thctfst^^refuge of the defendant fs likely 

aistmguish between the origin of the new to be challenged of the validity of the 

variety in nature and the origin under patent on the grounds that you failed to 

cultivation, some strange legal opinions, asexually reproduce the plant successfully 

devoid of biological basis, have been including growing the progeny until they 

' wed the novel characters prior to ap- 



rendered 

The plants which may qualify as "new" plication for the patent. Then 

apparently may all be assigned to one of have to prove that you did, or forfe 

the three following categories: sport (bud patent. Consequently, competent, pi 

or somatic mutation), hybrid, or muta- ably disinterested, witnesses should c 

tion (non-somatic). The legalist s belief as to the date of successful completn 

that these are in some way induced by the asexual reproduction including ap 

person who cultivates or cares for the ance of the novel characters in th( 

plants can be justified only partly since spring. 

most of the sports and mutations, and The scope of the patent permit 

some of the hybrids, arise spontaneously, patentee to control sale, use and as 

whether chimeras are patentable is un- propagation of the patented plant. 



i by the 



the writer relative to patent- on a royalty oasis, it is generauy ..l-.u 

^gated plants most of which that^ control^ of sak^ and ^usc|^ docs^ not^ex^ 

JJ'th a virus. For example, our two-tone or fruit or other plant parts not intended 

powering peaches common locally have for use in asexual reproduction, 
f^oth rose colored and pale pink flowers, A moot question is the coverage of 

petals or parts of petals due to infection pknt patents. Does the patent cover only 

^«th peach mosaic virus. Patentability of members of the clone asexually propa- 

such pathological color forms is unknown, gated from the original plant, or does it 

The ultimate decision as to "newness" apply to all plants indistinguishable from 

fests with the Agricultural Research Serv- each other.' In the only pertinent decision 

'ce, United States Department of Agricul- discovered, the court ruled. etfect. 

"Te. They may, at their option, require without realizing the biological signifi- 



64 



LASCA LEAVES 



cance of its ruling, that only members of 
a clone are covered, and that indistin- 
guishable plants which originated as an- 
other sport, mutation or hybrid, even 
though identical, were not covered. Proof 
of infringement was difficult enough be- 
fore this decision. Now, if this decision 

fringement is weU-nigh impossible toiless 
the alleged infringer is using the fancy 
horticultural name under which the pat- 
It is not permissible in applying for a 
plant patent to use a fancy horticultural 
name. When application is made, the 
plant is referred to merely as a rose, peach, 
camellia, etc., as the case may be. How- 

of little commercial vaLe except ^or the 
demand created for that plant under a 

sequently there would be little profit in 
propagating a patented plant unless it 



were sold under the name under which a 
market had been created by advertising, 
except for plants used mainly for com- 
mercial production of plant products such 
as fruit, cut flowers, pulp wood, etc. In 
the latter case substantial savings might 
be made by propagating stock without 
license to establish one's own orchard or 

From this summary it should be evident 
that plant patents involve many puzzling 
and often obscure problems in the botani- 
co-legal field. As yet there have been few 
judicial decisions to interpret the relevant 
statutes. However, the home gardener 
may be happy in the belief that the pat- 
ented plant which he buys is perhaps new 
and better even though probably more 
expensive. Just today, I bought a couple 
of patented roses myself. 

?/wr^r^7o"l/L«/L/77 Calif oniui 
Los Angeles 7, CaUfoniia 



COVER 

Historical La> 



State and County Arboretum. It is re- 
corded for all time on a bronze plaque 
given by the State of California, and 
placed in front of "Lucky" Baldwin's 
"Queen Anne Cottage" on the historic 
homesite of Rancho Santa Anita. 

Members of the Historical Committee 
worked early and late arraying "Queen 
Anne" for her moment of glory: Mrs. 
John R. Mage and Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin, 
co-chairmen, Mrs. Ernest A. Bryant, Jr., 
Maurice Block, Mrs. Howard Cunning- 
ham, Mrs. Forrest Q. Stanton, Mrs. 
Alfred Murray, Jack Fawcett, Dewey 
E. Nelson, to mention only the portion of 
the Committee most active in the day's 
preparations. During the brief speeches, 
credit was given where credit was due. 
Mrs. James Greer, Regent of the Santa 
Anita Chapter, Daughters of the Ameri- 



PICTURE 

'dwark No. 367 

can Revolution, was introduced, and she 

tion of the Hugo Reid adobe built in 
1839, now in a state of dis-repair. Super- 
visor John Anson Ford, Chairman of the 
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, 
introduced Aubrey Neasham, who came 



down 



There followed an informal inspection 
of the three historic buildings bordering 
the Lake — then, "regalement " on the 
lawn, and singing of old favorites har- 
monized by four pretty "Crown City 
Coronettes," to gratifying applause And 
so, "Queen Anne Cottage" intended by 
"Lucky " Baldwin for entertaining when 
he built it in 1881, resumed its true role, 
becoming, furthermore, Historical Land- 
mark No. 367 in the State of California, 
on a sunny afternoon in 1954. S. B. D. 



SUMMER 1954 



'Itifioya. H. fo> 
:ms of H. fuliu 
r display beds. 



1 by Dr. 



are now in one of the 

are hybrid varieties d( 
at the New York Bota 
A. B. Stout who was 
entific dayhly breeding' and introduction. 
Other breeders well represented include 
H. P. Sass, Dr. Hamilton P. Traub, H. M. 
Russell, Mrs. Thomas Nesmith, and Carl 
MiUiken. There are also clones from Carl 
Betscher, Amos Perry, Bertrand Farr, 
George Yeld, Paul Cook, Wyndham Hay- 
ward, Dr. J. B. S. Norton, Clint McDade, 
Lemoine Bechtold, W. B. Davis, David 
Hall, Ralph Wheeler, Mrs. Bright Taylor, 
Mrs. Hugh Lester, and a few others. The 
writer's named hybrids and some num- 
bered seedlings are included in the plant- 
are growing satisfactorily, in spite of the 
fact that the soil is extremely uneven in 



quality because of the leveling 
developed severe chlorosis wh 
indicate a deficiency of some ki 
;ated by t 



Ireen. Th' 



ally affec 



ngside 



I his IS a proDien 
ice It is being found ii 
; country. During th( 

ticed in the^ollection, 
lere in the Arboretum, 
es have been thought t( 



f the border 



) fill 1 



studied, 



lindei 
, daylily 



allotted t 

t garden and then, as additional good 
rieties are acquired, to discard the less 
sirable hybrids, unless they are of his- 
■ical importance. By gradually discard- 



;ntat?ve collection of 
should be useful to 



NAMES, NOTES AND NEWS 



the latter were outlined to 



Early in May the . 
^rom Professor Gu.s, 



LASCA LEAVES 



Eug^enY^Nasir^ Go^don''"conege,^TaWdpindi, 



and "a useful 
rubkinida. in oi 
a vine 9' hi^h 
It is planted a 



more (9'). It provides only a moderate 

winters^ Its hardiness is somewhat in 
question since one previous attempt to 
grow it ended in failure during 1950. 
However, those plants were very young 
and the winter was extremely severe. K. 
Yubkunda is a mass of dark red pea- 
shaped flowers at this writing (June 1) 
and has been for a month; it shows no 
sign of letting up. This is not a showy 
plant from any distance because the flow- 
ing and useful vine. Seed requires no 
special care and should germinate in a 



GROWING NOTES 

George H. Spalding 
If you are looking for a low shrub for a 

other worthwhile Bottle Brush from Aus- 
tralia with small lavender "brushes" set 
close to the stems among the needle-like 
leaves. It appears to be perfectly hardy, 

in the open ground. The plants are very 
spreading and only moderately compact. 
The foliage is a good medium green pre- 
senting a good appearance at all times. 
Plants four years old are about 4' in diam- 
eter and about 1-1 V?' high. No difficulty 
has been experienced in growing them 



vines. The subjects of this 
ruhu-uuda and K. n,gn- 
honesty should be classed 
letween those two commonly 



The 



The 



are trifoliate and about 5" 
flowers are black with a small yellow spot 
on the keel. Of the two species K. nigri- 
cans, so far, appears to be the more vigor- 
ous grower and K. ruhicunda the more 

maleuca cordata will probably never 
attain popularity as a landscape subject. It 
is definitely worthwhile but, in the Ar- 
boretum collection at least, is rather sparse 
of foliage and open in habit. Three year 

shaped. The plant gives the appearance of 
a miniature Euc. pulverulenla with greener 
foliage and lavender pink flower balls, 
first at the ends of the branches, then 
flowering along the stem at the base of 
each leaf. The flower heads are V2" .'J] 



BOOK REVIEW 

Howard Aspf.r La Canada, Oiif. it is also fortunately a book for the dedicated 

History of the Rose by Roy E. Shepherd. New amateur, of whom there are many thousands. 
York: The Macrnilla^ Co. 263 pp. '-^ ^ ^ ^'"'"'■i '''''J^''"'"^' .^[]''Y'''- ""^ ''a "'^'"n- 

for rose-growing specialists and hybridists; but tunes, with long lapses, Mr. Shepherd still 



LASCA LEAVES 




i 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



Board of Trustees 

President Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

Vice-President Mrs. Harry J. Bauer 

Vice-President Robert Casamajor 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Ralph D. Cornell Mrs. John R. Mage 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel Mosher 
John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

J. D. Funk Harold F. Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Henry C. Soto 
Charles S. Jones Frank E. Titus 

John C. Macfarland Frits W. Went 



Russell J. Seibert Director 

George H. Spalding Superintendent 

Louis B. Martin Plant Physiologist 

W. QuiNN Buck Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah Plant Recorder 

Dewey E. Nelson Historical Curator 

Thelma G. Blanchard Secretary 

Janet Wright Researclj and Library (part time) 

Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5,000.00 or more 



Club 



ubersbip 



able 



> deductible under Federal 



LASCA LEAVES 

The official publication of th 



LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY 



Southern California — Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Russell J. Seibert 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Succulents Alfred C. Hottes 

Taxonomy of JExotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. MuNZ 

Janet Wright, Editor 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



Officers 1954 

Fred W. Roeweka 

\nd Secretary Ronald B. Townse 

Kenneth Bish 



William Beresford Percy C. Everett 

Manchester Boddy Earle E. Humphrie 

Howard Bodger Mildred E. Mathia 

Philip Edward Chandler Alfred W. Robert; 

Ralph D. Cornell Ronald B. Townsei 



advisory council 
L Ayres, Jr. Murray C. McNei 

r Casamajor Manfred Meyber< 

' R. Davis Lovell Swisher, J 

Evans Roy F. Wilcox 



Annual Member % 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) . . . 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 



Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 



Box 688— Arcadia— California 
r elephone DOuglas 7-5444 



AUTUMN 1954 



Lasca Leaves 

Vol. IV AUTUMN. 1954 No. 4 



CONTENTS 

Theodore Payne Philip A. Munz 75 

Tabehuia umhellald R. J. Seibert 77 

The History and Parentage of Zinnia Cultivars. . .Richard M. Beeks 79 
Bird Notes 83 

Austrahan Counterpart of the American Agave and Furcraea 

Wilham Hertrich 86 

Cal-Poly: Practical Contributions to Horticulture. .Howards. Brown 89 

Excerpt from "Frondes Agrestes" John Ruskin 91 

Los Angeles Beautiful Mrs. Valley M. Knudson 92 

Growing Notes George H. Spalding 93 

Cover Picture: Magiiol/a macro phylLi 94 

Quotation, From "Patterns of Survival John Hodgdon Bradley 94 

Calendar 95 

Names, Notes, News 95 

Book Review. . 96 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Theodore Payne 

Znnua nolacea. Plate I 



Spear Lily {Dnryj,ithes Pahiwn W. Hill) . 

pjumUa: original scratehboard sket 
Campus: California State Polytechnic Coll. 



LASCA LEAVES 



He purchased a nursery and lease at 
440 So. Broadway that had been founded 
in 1890 by H. A. Brydges and had been 
taken over in 1892 by Lyon and Cobbe. 
Payne bought it from Hugh Evans. Here 
he carried on a general seed and nursery 
business, specializing in flower, tree (es- 
pecially eucalyptus), shrub and other 
seeds, of which he had the most complete 
assortmcnUn .^he West. Now began^his 

was ^so''littirgenc°rIV7nteresT that Mr. 
Germain told him he was foolish to spend 

rest of the business had to carry them. 
For years he sold great quantities of eu- 
calyptus seed ; his record book shows items 
like a single order for 125 pounds of seed 
of E. globuhu and 400 pounds of Wash- 



vation about 430 species, some of which 
had been introduced into European gar- 
dens long before, but not locally. Many 
of these have not remained in the trade. 
He introduced the Arizona Cypress about 
1909, having an order for 10 pounds of 
seed from Thomas Meehan in the East. A 
man collected 40 pounds Jor him and 
Payne gradually sold t' ' 
he had a ' ' 



1920, 



from France 



Mr. Payne says that at that time there 
were few nurseries outside of Los An- 
geles so that people came to the city to 
make their purchases. He acted as a 
central clearing house, other nurserymen 
listing their stock with him. Thus he sold 

Ventura Co., and in another, five in Sacra- 
mento Valley. 

In 1907 Theodore Payne married Alice 

vessel. Mrs. Payne taught school for some 
years. Everyone who knows Mr. Payne 
well is acquainted also with his friendly 
and charming wife, since for almost half 
a century they have appeared together at 



cana in 1919, 
Ceanothus cyaneus in 1922, Cupressus 
Forbesii in 1935. Other introductions or 
re-introductions that were less local were 
Tithonia spedosa in 1918, Aquilegia 
longissima in 1929, Pike Sapote in 1926. 

No small part of his work has been plan- 
ning estates and grounds. Among these 
may be mentioned the Armour estate in 
Pasadena and that of Mrs. Laura J. 
Knight of Santa Barbara of which he had 
charge for nine years. With Ralph Cornell 



did a 



When Mrs. Ernest 
Rancho Santa Ana 
laturally turned to T 



Payne and for s 
her seed from him. Thus, to cite 
few examples, it is evident that h 
fluence in the region has been wide. 



wildflower seeds. Then local 
developed after 1915 and his hobby 
gradually became his business, allowing 



'ast President, 

rNw''°r"<^f 
•cllow of the 



Royal Horticultural Society. Many 
readers of Lasca Leaves will remem 
honor paid him on his eightieth bi 
in June, 1952, by the Southern Cal 



AUTUMN 1954 



77 



t Horticultural Institute. And so now, it is ern Californians aware of some of the 

a pleasure to be able to record a bit of the beauty that Nature placed in their state in 

history of this mild-mannered and pleas- the way of native plants. He has taught 

Bf ant man, who has contributed so greatly them how to use them. Here is a greeting 

to the development of horticulture in and tribute to Theodore Payne, plantsman 

g Southern California. He has made South- and gentleman. 



TABEBUIA UMBELLATA 




LASCA LEAVES 



not until 1858, that the double Zinnia 
became a reality. 

Some confusion has resulted from con- 
tradictory reports pertaining to the or- 
iginal source of the double Zinnia. "The 
Garden" (1895) is the Zinnia history 
reference most used by present day grow- 
as having been introduced from the West 
Indies. On the other hand the publica- 
tion, "La Belgique Horticole," (1861) 

complete^ It ^ass^ert^ed that the double Zm- 
nia seed was received by Carter and Hol- 
burn of England and Grazan, a horticul- 
turist of Bagneres, France, from a corres- 
pondent of the province "Oude," (Oudh) , 
British India, in 1858. "Gartenflora" 
(1862) confirms the seed source. Vilmorin 
and Co. obtained seed from Grazan. 

"Gardeners' Chronicle" (I860) re- 
ceived a shipment of cut double Zinnias 
from Vilmorin and Co., which was de- 
scribed as being very similar to the double 
"pompome chrysanthemum." The flowers 

diameter, and exhibited colors of "purple, 
deep rose, light rose, rose striped, red 
orange red, orange, buff, and various 
shades of these colors." The rays displayed 

The double form originally was given 
the title of Z. elegans 'Flore Plcno.' Ac- 
cording to Weddle (1945) later synonyms 
of this double are as follows: Z. "Pumila," 
Z. 'Cut and Come Again' and Z. 'Cut and 
Come Again' dwarf. 

In 1874, Haage and Schmidt intro- 
duced a dahlia-flowered cultivar, Z. ele- 
gans "Flore Pleno' ("Gartenflora" 1874). 
Evidently this form did not become estab- 
lished at the time, for Bodger Seed Com- 
pany's 'Giant Dahlia' introduction in 
1919 was considered to be a new im- 
portant trend in plant habit and flower 
form (Weddle 1945). 

Chr. Lorenz of Erfurt, Germany, de- 
veloped the first 'Giant Mammoth' strain. 

tive title of Z. elegcws 'Robusta Grande- 
flora Plenissima' ("Gartenflora" 1886) ! 
The plants, which ranged from twenty- 
eight to forty inches in height, produced 
flower heads measuring up to six inches 



in diameter. The influence of the Giant 
Mammoth' strain is quite evident in all of 
the larger Zinnia cultivars of today. 

The following introductions were either 
as large as or larger than the Z. elegans 
species and, therefore, are included in its 

The 'Scabiosa' flowered form was de- 
veloped and introduced by Charles Huber 
and Co. in 1895 ("'Revue Horticole' 
1895). This imitator Zinnia is a very de- 
sirable plant, at its best. However, two 
serious form deficiencies still exist: (1) 
the form has not become fixed; (2) there 
are only a few true colors offered. (Wed- 
dle 1945). 

Perhaps the forerunner of the modern 
"Giants of California* was the flat-headed 
"Tagetes' flowered cultivar. ""Revue Horti- 
cole" (1896) reported it as a new French 

Another modern favorite is the quill- 
rayed "Fantasy.' Although this type was 
offered as a new cultivar in 1935, Weddle 
(1945) says that this form has been listed 
in commercial seed catalogues since 1902 
under the name of "Frise.' ""Revue Horti- 
cole" (1904) records 'Frise' as having 
been developed by Herb of France. Sev- 
eral other recent cultivar^s ha^^y^'^'^J^'^^ 
plant and the compositional form ot the 
heads. 

The "Cactus" flowered Zinnia made its 
appearance in France in 1914 ("Revue 
Horticole" 1914) . The rays are fluted, i.e., 
the margins curl upwardly, exposing the 
harsh under surface. It is seldom grown 
in the modern garden though seed is still 
available. 

(B) Z. ANGUSTIFOLIA— The wild 
species of Z. cwgustifolu, was transported 
from Mexico to France in 1825. As m 
the case of Z. eleg.ins. the natural, single 
flowered forms spread throughout the 
gardens of Europe as a New World curi- 
osity. Some popularity was gained 
the German horticulturists Haa.t:e and 
Schmidt developed the cultivar double. 
Z. cwgustijolia "Flore Pleno' ( 'Garten- 
flora" 1871, 1872). Even though later 
stock improvements have been introduced^ 
cultivars of this species have never become 
extensively valued as garden subjects. 



AUTUMN 1934 



asked whether all of 



cole" (1914) descriLx'd 'CTaillardia' as a an'y ^conip^^^ 'this'^Vuc stio'i ^ 

tion a possible hybrid parentage. The Z elLgau.s imitation tor d\\arliKss 

heads are larger than those typical of the [^^""to hJiht^^Umy he^\'lui'ixVt^h U the 

probably has come about by means of sev- z" 'lupi^s^Mn^ ^^^^^^ at 1cast"in 

have produced Z. elegans 'Robusta.' ancestry The reciprocal ^uoss ot^ the Dar^ 

(C) ELEGANS - ANGUSTIFOLIA ^:J"4 ^.^rr'AIbrHore Pleno Tom 

HYBRIDS--The importance of Z. Thumb' became the cultivar hybrid of 

became established primarily be- 9 Z. elegans 'Nana Flore Plcno' x d" 

cause of its use as a hybrid parent. Focke Z. angusufoln, 'More Pleno" ("Garten- 

(1881) reports that L. Lille of Lyon, flora" 1887). Supposedly this cultivar is 

France, successfully utilized it as the seed composed of the largest flowers on the 

parent in a cross with Z. elegdns 'Coc- smallest plant, but so far this ideal has 

cinea.'-' Lille obtained one "very florifer- been attained only in a few individuals 

ous" F, progeny and seventeen F./s which ( Weddle 1 94 5 ) . 

appeared to Ix: intermediate between the There are three small-flowered elc^jans^ 

other, they provcTto'be qdte vaHabk. "Ga^taifl'orli"' ('l HS9)° :uJd'°'Re!m''Hort'i- 
Haage and Schmidt cultivated this cross cole" (1889) reported that Vilmorin in- 
very extensively over a ten year period, troduced the new form Ijlliput.' 'Nains 
The selected double cultivars were rc- Pompons' was developed by Ch. Molin of 
leased on the market in 1876 under the I- ranee and introduced 'by Vilmorin 
collective title of Zinnia 'Darwini.' The Andrieux and Co. in 189.^ ("Revue Morti- 
cultivars of this hybrid group were de- cole ' 1892), but Weddle (1943) claims 
scribed in "Florist and Pomologist" 'Pompon' to be another T.illiput.' To 
(1876) as follows: "Nana Compacta,' further complicate matters, Vilmorin in- 
small heads on a compact plant; 'Pyra- troduced 'Nains Lillipuf in 1894 ("Re- 
midilis,' cone-shaped heads on a plant of vue de L'Horticulture Beige" 1894). 
medium stature; 'Major,' both plant habit Since no record for the introduction of the 
^nd heads larger; 'Vitata,' ligules of ray very small 'Cupid' has been found, there 
flowers striped white on purple, purple on is a possibility that 'Nains Lillipuf was 
^hite, yellow on crimson and purple on the prior name for this cultivar. 
sulfur yellow. The most rc.cntiv recorded clcgans- 

It should be noted that all of the above angustifolia hviMidi/.K ion .Kuirrcd in 
forms were smaller in habit and flower France in i';in, ' Revue Florticole" 
head than Z. iVf^;./;/, 'Flore Pleno.' The (1910) reported that ' a new race of 
simple flowers of new hues of color" rc- 

'Records of the exact date of tliis cross have suited from the cross, 9 Z. elegans x 



LASCA LEAVES 



nODERN CULTtVARS 

Mil 
'Giant DaMio.'! 
19,10 ; I 



MODEl?N CULTIVARS MODERN CULTIVARS 



\1896_ 

'Sc^iosa 
1895 



L.ll.puV 

'Nains^ompons' 

\ I8p2 



line of inheritance 
-------Postulated 



1820 



(D) ZINNIA LINEARIS— The Mexi- 
can species, Z. linearis, has remained in 
cultivation since its English introduction 
in 1838, without exhibiting any major 

India, Percy-Lancaster (1944) annually 



grew "hundreds of thousands of seed- 
lings" in search of phenotypic variations 
which might be of horticultural value- In 
spite of the large number of in^ividu^^i^ 
found,' a'^nd^hes^'e weTe folorchanges of 



LASCA LEAVES 



CULTIVATION OF METASEQUOIA 

ILL Van Rensselaer, Director Saratoga Hoitimltmal Fo. 



Six years have now passed since Meta- When Dr. E. D. Merrill, former L>i- 

sequoia glyptostroboides,T^o^\x\it\y known rector of the Arnold Arboretum in Mas- 

as the dawn redwood, was introduced into sachusetts, first examined botanical spcci 

the gardens of North America. During mens of Metasequoia m 1946, ho bcuunc 

this period, horticulturists have had an interested in obtaining seeds and .uumiI- 

opportunity to work out techniques of ingly sent funds to China to iinaiuc an 

propagation, to study the growth habits of expedition for this purpose. The sccUlIi 

this interesting tree in its new surround- was successful and the first seeds to ic.uh 

ot^its possible usefulness as an ornamental, quantity, arrived at the Arnold Arboi c tuni 

There are now several thousand specimens in January, 1948. Seeds planted Hk da) 

and arboreta in various parts of the Pacific germinate in less than two weeks, kaur 

Coast, and hundreds more are being in the same spring. Dr. Ralph W. ( hanc) . 

planted each year. paleobotanist ot the University ot ( -'l' 

The fascinating story of the discovery fornia, made a sticnuous and iia lu^.n^ 

in China of the dawn redwood and its journey into central China to cxamnK j cr 

subsequent introduction in 1948 to North sonally living specimens of Mt/^i'^v'' 

America and other parts of the world has in the few remaining stands. Siiuc l'^ ^"^' 

been reported in many horticukural journ- seeds and seedlings have been wukl) 

nals and periodicals during the past few tributed throughout the world by iIk ''^i'J 

years. A recently published paper in Swe- old Arboretum and by the Save-thc-Kcd 

den lists one hundred thirty-seven articles woods League. Wherever the spccic> ha. 

about the tree from eighteen countries, in flourished under conditions of cultivation 

fourteen languages. it has proved to be a vigorous, rapul 

Known previously only in the fossil growing tree, at least in its youth, report 

record, this remarkable deciduous red- of growth of three to four feet a year ar< 

wood was thought by paleobotanists to common. 

ha\e been extinct for millions of years. Of interest to western horticulturists i 

Needless to say, widespread interest was the fact that the dawn redwood differ 

aroused^ in botanical and horticukural from its relative, the California K-d^ood 



central China. Studies of fossil stems ing in late autumn, the leaves of the dawn 

aves, and cones, some of which have redwood assume a bronzy hue. 2. The 

?en well-preserved, convince investiga- branches of the dawn redwood are mostly 

rs that this species was once widely dis- ascending, while those of the Cahtornia 

■ ' ' • ■ -- - - - ^ ^i^l^t angles t'^ 



the trunk or frequently are markedly de- 
flexed. 3. The branches of Mdc^^^q"^''' 
are symmetrically arranged in oppoMte 



AUTUMN 1954 



dawn redwood. 



turn in Portland produced 

to North America. 

Within a few months ; 

at the Arnold Arboretum 



86 



LASCA LEAVES 



be widely planted, preferably in groves, 
in public grounds and parks in all regions 
where it thrives. Deep loamy soil and 
ample moisture are desirable for healthy 

plantation^ that should be made some- 
where in California is described in a re- 



port of a single forest planting of some 
2000 trees on a selected site in Great 





LASCA LEAVES 




AUTUMN 1954 



89 



CAL-POLY 
Practical contributions to horticulture 



Howard S. 

The W. K. Kellogg ranch at Pomona 
with its famous Arabian horses and en- 
' horse shows is known to 



hern Calii 
ughout the 



and 



cjucntly s 



□untry. 



fre- 



r Cah- 



tornia State Polytechnic College. The 
Kellogg ranch was a gift to the college 
jrom the W. K. Kellogg Foundation in 

near^the t^wn of^S^^^^^ is one of the 

rounded by spacious lawns give this cam- 
pus a -country club" atmosphere. The C. 
B. Voorhis family of Pasadena pre< 



he further he goes the 



^Of course^ 
forth by the State Department of Educa- 



The requirements of the j 
"Learn by Doing ' instructic 



1938. The self -owned ^ 



of the 



vegetal 



lagmg ( 



The curriculum developed to at- phiksophi 
i objective is somewhat unconven- 
and has been called "upside 

them throughout the college ca- 
nd spreads theory and related 
through the four year program, 



sales, keeping records of costs and de- 
termining profit, a student has gained 
knowledge of the problems he will face 
in the future. This combination of "learn 
by doing" and "earn while learning" 



more profitable. Eai 



iduation, the importa 
s evident. At what< 
It leaves Cal-Poly, 
skills that will en; 



I Horti- 



LASCA LEAVES 



LOS ANGELES BEAUTIFUL 

Mrs. Valley M. Knudson 

As Los Angeles grows, shall it become utilizing public trash containers and dis- 
a less attractive place in which to live and courage the throwing of rubbish from 
work? As the city's industry increases, moving vehicles. Still another committee 
shall its appeal to visitors decrease? As concerns itself with the cleaning up of 
our vast network of highways extend, vacant lots, the removal of unsightly de- 
shall they represent merely more miles of bris and urges good housekeeping habits 
littered roadside, more unsightly shacks, in our city streets, parks and all public 
assorted signs and abandoned-car dumps? places. 

Or shall this "land of the angels" be- A Los Angeles Beautiful long-range 

come an ever more beautiful area of un- program for a street tree maintenance and 

blemished highways, park-like boulevards, planting program has already brought 

clean streets, restricted, well-maintained startling results and promise of glorious 

advertising, and smartly maintained com- returns to come, such as the great lane of 

mercial establishments ? giant coral trees, extending from Sawtelle 

Los Angeles Beautiful calls upon every ^.^^^^^^^^ planted ^y the^ Bjent^od-^San 

the^e^questions.^ Beautiful founded in thirty thousand school children 

1949 at the request of the Los Angeles participate in the annual pl^nting/ontest 

Chamber of Commerce, provides a clear- sponsored by Los Angeles Beaut, tul An- 

ing house and workshop for everyone ^ n ' 

interested in making Los Angeles more tional Flower Show are attracting a.i c-r 

attractive. Its Advisory Board is made up widening circle of home-owner inteict. 

of representatives from business, industry, Los Angeles Beautiful cooperates \vith 

women's and men's organizations. More the Municipal Art Commission in arrang- 

than one-hundred and fifty organizations '"g "Know Your City" Week, to arouse 

are affiliated with Los Angeles Beautiful established residents and newcomers 

Its Executive Committee consists of men alike new interest and civic pride. It con- 

and women in business, industry, govern- ^^cts an annual "Industry Can be Beauti- 

ment and organized groups. ful" contest, which encourages all types 

Los Angeles Beautiful plans and de- of commercial and public buildings to 



velops numerous city-wide programs, Deaunry tneir surrounaings. ii i--'tly 

mobilizing the forces of public-spirited conducted a contest to select the ofiiciai 

citizens to build the beautiful Los Angeles ^'ty Aower; Bird of Paradise (Sfre/ftzia 

of their dreams. It has special legislative Regime) was chosen, 

committees that work with civic groups A year-round program of civic obsery- 

and with public officials on such problems ances has been set up, with each month s 

as rubbish disposal, regulation of bill- project sponsored by one of the affiliated 

boards on our new freeways, smog abate- organizations. Every year Arbor Day ij 

ment, and rehabilitation of sub-standard observed by tree planting ceremonies and 

housing. we sponsor "Plant a Tree Week." The 

Other Los Angeles Beautiful commit- month of October has been set aside by 

tees spearhead programs to interest own- the Board of Supervisors as "Los Angeles 

ers and occupants of housing units to Beautiful" month, and the annual birth- 



AUTUMN 1954 



93 



il committee to coordinate Ci^ 
; working for a charter amen 
will integrate the efforts of ; 



Los Angeles Beautiful needs 
:iterest and help of every resid 



affihated, 
notified as 
projects. 



GROWING NOTES 

George H. Spalding 

951. {Lascct Leaves Vol. 1, 



, The germinating medi 



^Abte] mariesi-J^^'^ 


7-16 


!^rl'L continu^ 






10 




4-6 


X Abut Hon 






33-54 


"Golden Fleece' 




glcwcoptem 




Abutilon auratum 


9 




13 
















10-19 




3-5 




5 








6-31 
5 




27 


kenipe.nni 


7 




35 


koa 










6-12 




43 




10-45 






15 








12-15 








20 














6-15 








7 
10 








5-7 








5 












8-12 


spmen-e>u 


9 


VpiLh-oides 






4-5 




13 








27 




13 



LASCA LEAVES 




mi E 



Siii iiiii 

'■l^liil iiiiil 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC 



Board of Trustees 

President Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

Vice-President Mrs. Harry J. Bauer 

Vice-President Robert Casamajor 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Ralph D. Cornell John C. Macfarland 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Mrs. John R. Mage 
John Anson Ford Samuel Mosher 

J. D. Funk Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

William Hertrich Harold F. Roach 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Mrs. William D. Shearer 
Henry Ishida Henry C. Soto 

Charles S. Jones Frank E. Titus 

Frits W. Went 
honorary trustees 
Fred W. Roewekamp Mrs. J. J. Gallagher 

LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM STAFF 

Russell J. Seibert Director 

GEORGE H. Spalding Superintendent 

Louis B. Martin Phystologni 

W. Quinn Buck • -Propagator 

J. Thomas McGah ^'^^"^'^'^ 

Dewey E. Nelson 



■ Curator 



K. McGah ^'^y^^n (part time) 

memberships 

$ 5.00 

10.00 

. 25.00 

100.00 



Annual Associate Membership 

Annual Membership 

Annual Contributing Membership 

Annual Sustaining Membership 

Annual Sponsor Membership 

Life Membership 

Founders ^I'OOO-f' 

Benefactors ••• 5,000.0 

All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax 

Box 688— Arcadia—California 
Telephone DOuglas 7-3444 



250.00 



LASCA LEAVES 

The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 
and the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. 

sponsors of 

LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM 



Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

William Hertrich Russell J. Seibert 

editorial board 
Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California — Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Russell J. Seibert 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. Munz 

Janet Wright, Editor 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



Board of Trustees 

dent Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

-President Mrs. Harry J. Bauer 

■President ROBERT CasamajoR 

surer Howard A. Miller 

Ralph D. Cornell John C. Macfarland 

Mrs, Richard Y. Dakin Mrs. John R. Mage 
John Anson Ford Samuel Mosher 

J. D. Funk Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

William Hertrich Harold F. Roach 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Mrs. William D. Shearer 
Henry Ishida Henry C. Soto 

Charles S. Jones Frank E. Titus 

Frits W. Went 



Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5,000.00 or more 



WINTER 1955 



Lasca Leaves 

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE 

Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

William Hertrich Russell J. Seibert 



Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Elizabeth McClintock 
Santa Barbara— Katherine K. Muller 
Southern California — Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Russell J. Seibert 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. Quinn Buck 

Succulents Alfred C. Hottes 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. Munz 

Janet Wright, Edkor 

Voi • V JANUARY, 195 5 No. 1 

CONTENTS 



LASCA LEAVES 




WINTER 1955 



3 




LASCA LEAVES 



docir 



nk wh 



ned home he took 
)rding t 



fresh water was scarce aboard ship but the 
Captain was generous and gave him 
enough to keep the plants ahve. When 
they arrived in Marseilles several months 
later there were still five plants living. 
Of these the Captain took two and Frezier 
kept three. On his arrival in Paris, Frezier 
says that he gave one of them to his 
friend, the famed botanist, Antoine Jus- 
si eu, to be planted in the Royal Garden. 
One of the plants went to the minister of 

Frezier later published, in his "Relation 
du Voyage a la Mer du Sur," 1717, a 
drawing of the plant and its fruit with the 
title Fragana cbHiensis, jructu maxima, 
folus carnosis. hnsutis, vulgo frutHlo. 
Duchesne, who monographed the straw- 
berries in 1766 changed the name to 
Fragaria chdoensis. The island of Chiloe 
which lies off the coast of Chile is one of 
the regions in which the large-fruited 
form occurs as an indigenous species, and 
the assuniption would be that the specific 

the island; yet Duchesne says nothing to 
this effect, and the fact that Frezier in his 

shows that he, at least, desired to name it 
after the country, Chile, instead of for 
the island. Today most authorities use the 

commemorated in another ground cover, 

strawberry. 



plants at Pt. "Arena was almost red ; 
the berries were soft and fragile. 

One of the most significant differcr 
between the California plants and som( 
the South American forms is that in C 
fornia the flowers are all unisexual v 



The ( 



awberi 



duced into Europe, and from the cross 
between the two species has arisen all of 
the famijiar garden strawberries that we 

The Beach Strawberry is an extremely 
variable species and plants from different 
localities may be quite different in char- 



South American forms have perfec 
ers, i.e. with both stamens and pistil 
le same flower. One of the reasons 



was to produce perfect flowered, 
plants which would produce fruit as well, 
as serve as a ground cover. At that t>me a 
number of strains of Fragaria chiloensn 
collected from various parts of California 
brought together in the experimental 



field i 



/ith 5 



; of the ^ 



^•berry. Numerous 
^hc spring of 1949 



lly observed for vigor, disease 

plants bloomed they were 
determine which produced 
1 both stamens and pistils and 
ould produce berries without 
be interplanted. Finally one 



tanic Garden which had been moved m 
the meantime to Claremont, Calitornia. 
These one hundred plants were allowed 



were selected for final t 
plants No. 25 was fii 
propagules were then g 



.ardinessand 
Of the two 



WINTER 1955 



they are probably at their best 



does best i 



,dical]y. 

iybnd Ornamental Strawberry No. watermg about every week or ten days 
the name by which this clone is during the summer to keep them at their 
vn, is believed to be a ground cover prime. During late fall or winter some 
h is superior to the Beach Strawberry of the leaves may become brown and dis- 
cing more vigorous, larger in all its colored and this is then a good time to 
, and in addition produces dessert give them their yearly renovation. The 
ity fruit for the home. The selected leaves can be mowed off with a lawn- 
; at first appears to be unnecessarily mower if the blades are set high enough 
, but it was chosen only after careful to avoid injuring the crown. The old 
cration. In the first place this hybrid leaves and excess runners are raked off 
t to be confused in any way with the and the plants fertilized and watered, 
nercial type strawberry. The fruit. Within a couple of weeks the area should 
2 perhaps more flavorful than many be covered with a smooth even mat of 

which make it unsuitable for com- fruit production, the plants should be 

ial use. The berries tend to be soft thinned about every two years. So far the 

rather fragile so that they could not plants have not been troubled by diseases 

icked or shipped and they also tend and the only insect pest that has been 

■ pale in color. Another characteristic —'--J- - 



rly spring. 



and should therefore be picked while ^^"'^^ the subject, F, 

still appear to be somewhat green. '^'^^ "^1953 ''pp'^^'" 

crning flavor it is interesting to note Flowering Native aiifornia Pla 

Etter many years ago said that the Use," by Katherine K. Muller, 

it exquisite flavors the strawberry will Barbara Botanic Garden, Santa 

know will be derived from the var- J^e^cover picture onhe^same^. 

forms of the chiloetisis species. '- ground cover, 
lis hybrid appears to be quite adapta- 

3 various soils in Southern California w;Unn Pnn^nop ir 

can probably be grown in any soil StnSrry, 'jTur Hered^^^^^^^ I 

PLANT INTRODUCTIONS FOR 1954 

Philip Edward Chandler 



e ventured to suggest in the erect, gnarled, crooked tree of low c 
some of the better known medium height [but] in other place 
with which these newcomers spreading horizontally over the ground i 



■able network of trunks 



LASCA LEAVES 




WINTER 1955 



AIR POLLUTION DAMAGE TO AGRICULTURAL CROPS 



specific source for the air-borne contami- 
nant. Damage to the foliage of a variety 
of crops can be caused by exposure to sul- 
phur dioxide, fluorides, chlorine, and am- 



recognized by the symptom expression on 
the plant affected. Injuries of the kind 
suggested above have been reported from 
many places throughout the world. Dam- 
age to crop plants in the vicinity of Los 
Angeles were first found to be of impor- 
tance in 1945. The symptoms of damage 
were different from those usually asso- 
aated with Recognized air pollutants. Not 



kinds of plants aflfected wei 
different. This suggested that 



ally 



new type of 

ent that was responsible for th( 
crops grown in the Los Angele; 

A survey conducted in 1944 
demonstrated that damage wa; 
served in the vicinity of Dominguez and 
North Long Beach, California. The prin- 

ally troubkd by^Ll^u7io°xTde orX^- 

jury was dso different. Vegetable crops 



een^ob!erve 



1 border to Santa 



lamage has been observed sm 
he San Francisco bay area, 
lamage to plants in the bay ; 



r known to occur from San Rafael 
north to Gilroy on the south and 
rd to Walnut Creek.^ Further sur- 



occur only du 
These periods 



lamage. 



1945 proper to call tl 
ob- plants "smog damage, 

pollution damage." It wa< 
toxicants responsible foi 
could be identified, perhap 



^ype of damage observed 

g piriodso'rrcduced visi"" 

c locally known as "smog 
esult of this some people 
nage of plants as "smog 

ible for damage, it is not 
damage observed on 



LASCA LEAVES M 

tmospherc and become oxidized. It is the Observations on damage to crops by 

xidized hydrocarbons that are responsi- several writers have shown that there 

Ic for the silvering and glazing of spe- is a great variation in their relative sus- 

ific crop plants. The hydrocarbons, prin- ceptibility to injury by oxidized hydro- 

ipally unsaturates, cause no injury by carbons. Our studies are still incomplete, 

lemselves. They must be oxidized to give particularly with regard to forage plants, 

le damage factor. flowers, and woody ornamentals, and tree 

Concentrations of oxidized hydrocar- crops.^Weeds that are common to ^he^area 

lan'ts'occuronly duri^gVSofV^^ ^^^.^ ^"""^^ Bluegrass, Cheese Weed, 



, ggra- ^ 

These periods are Chick Weed, Dwarf Net 



aused by the lowering of an inversion Quarters, London Rocket, Quick Weed, I 

layer of air that confines the pollutants and Wild Oats. There are more than 50 

given off by normal industrial and com- other weeds that could be enumerated but I 

munity activity. The pollutants are con- which may not have general distribution. . 

fined below the inversion layer and due to The relative susceptibility of a variety of : 

the topography of the Los Angeles basin, plants known to be damaged by the 

must necessarily spread eastward and oxidized hydrocarbons is given in the 

southward, since the mountain barriers table on page 9. 

prevent their escape into the adjoining Some plants such as lettuce, tomato, ' 

desert regions. The air pollution period and sugar beets fail to grow normally in 

becomes more aggravated the longer the the polluted air mass, and yet, show no 

inversion layer remains low. When the visible injury symptoms.' Since all plants 

levels and permits the air to be broadly growth suppression, it is impossible to 
distributed, there is no longer important measure what effect this reduction in 
pollution present. A similar situation per- growth has upon plant vigor and yield, 
tains in the San Francisco bay area. The The effect of this growth suppression can 
periods of air pollution in San Francisco be readily demonstrated by growing plants 
are of shorter duration and of lower con- in a box, separated so that one group of 
centration largely because the mountain plants receives normal polluted air, and 
areas are of lower elevation and the wind another receives air that has been filtered 
velocities higher. The same conditions for through activated carbon. Within the short 
air pollution exist throughout the Pacific period of a week a growth difference can 
coast slope, but it is only in areas with be observed in tomatoes under such an ex- 
large metropolitan populations and a to- perimental design. Research is now cur- 
pography that permits the pollutants to rent at Riverside to determine the effect of 
become trapped that crop damage occurs, this growth suppression upon tree crops 
Since the discovery, by the senior author, such as citrus and avocado, 
of air pollution damage caused by pollu- Observations of crop damage in the 
tants other than sulphur dioxide and field, particularly by J. Hurst, West 
fluorides, and the discovery later by Covina revealed that plantings receiving 
Haagen-Smit that the specific pollutants adequate and regular water supplies 
responsible for crop damage were oxi- through irrigation were more severely 
dized hydrocarbons the University of damaged thaS those not so well watered. 
California, Riverside, has conducted a Xhe same differences have been repro- 
great deal of research attempting to dis- duced experimentally under controlled 
cover how agricultural crops can be grown fumigation and regulated water supply in 
in an area receiving a polluted air mass, cooperative experiments with S. J- R'^h- 
Our research studies are also concerned ards at Riverside. It is possible for a 
with knowing more about the chemical grower who has the option of withhold- 
behavior of air pollutants in the atmos- ing water during a short pollution period, 
phere using plants as an assay method. to minimize crop damage by exercising 



WINTER 1955 9 




12 



LASCA LEAVES 



LOS ANGELES STATE and COUNTY ARBORETUM 
POLICY AFFECTING PUBLIC USE OF 
ARBORETUM GROUNDS 

Effeaive January 9, 1935 
ARBORETUM OFFICE ( Temporary Headquarters ) : 

291 N. Old Ranch Road, Arcadia, Calif. Telephone: DOuglas 7-3444. Office Hours 
Monday through Friday (except legal holidays) 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. 
PUBLIC ENTRANCE: 

Public Entrance and Exit shall be at the designated pedestrian gate at 301 N 
Baldwin Ave., on such days and hours as the Arboretum is open to the public. 
PUBLIC PARKING: 

Parkmg facilities are available between the west side of Baldwin Ave., a 
Arboretum fence, accessible from the Forecourt at 301 N. Baldwin Ave., an^ 
the Parking Lot Entrances at 40 land 501 N. Baldwin Ave. Parking will c 
permitted where white lines indicate parking stalls. Private cars or other > 
will not be permitted within the Arboretum grounds. 
HOURS AND DAYS OF OPENING: 

The Arboretum shall be open to the General Public until further notice, without 
admission charge, on SUNDAYS ONLY, between the hours of 10:30 a.m. and 
4:00 p.m. 

ADMISSION TO ARBORETUM GROUNDS: 

Everyone entering the grounds will be requested to fill out guest information card 
with name, address and special interest. Conducted tours will start from the main 
entrance at 10:30 a.m. and on each half hour thereafter. The last tour will be con- 
duted at 4:00 p.m. All persons entering the Arboretum will be required to assemble 
for a scheduled tour. 
PETS: 

The Arboretum is a bird sanctuary, therefore, NO DOGS OR OTHER ANIMAL 
pzts shall be permitted within the Arboretum grounds. 
CHILDREN: 

Children under 14 years of age must be continuously accompanied by responsible 
adults. 

GENERAL CONDUCT OF THE PUBLIC: 

The Arboretum is designed for the passive and educational recreation of the public. 
Shouting, running and otherwise boisterous conduct will be strictly prohibited. 
LIQUOR: 

No alcoholic beverage or other bottled or canned drinks will be permitted within 



No picnicking or food in any form will be permitted on the grounds. Cor 

Arboretum. ' ^ 

PHOTOGRAPHS: 

Amateur photography is permitted. All photography for commercial purpose 
be prohibited except by prior arrangement through the Arboretum Director, 
bulbs and other photographic refuse must be deposited in trash containers. 
ARTISTS: 

Art classes or individual artists may make pre-arrangements, during office 
for appointments, time and location for painting. All artists using the Arbc: 
facilities will be responsible for keeping the area used clean and undamaged. 



LASCA LEAVES 



A TURFGRASS FROM "DOWN UNDER" 

Louis B. Martin 

Plant Physiologist, Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, Arcadia, Calif ot 
Mcrolaena stipoides (R. Br.), a pasture and 3 and U-3 (Hall's) Bermudas did not 



nd Aust 



"brown-off" during the winter s< 
'53. This was probably due to t 



of the New Zealand Flora, weather (average daytime temp, from Oct. 
describes it as, "a slender perennial, rhi- '43 to March '54 was 76.8 deg. P.; aver- 
zome creeping, leaves rather short." F. age night temp, was 51.5 deg. F.). This 
Manson Bailey in The Queensland Flora year all plots, with the exception of Ever- 
lalls it "Meadow Rice Grass." In the glades 3, were scalped, aerified, and fcrti- 
past year, research has been initiated with lized in Oct. Very warm weather and two 
iWicrolaena stipoides to explore its possi- light rains following this operation pro- 
bilities as a turfgrass for So. California. moted rapid re-growth and at present the 
Seed from New Zealand was planted in plots show excellent green color. Rcgard- 
Sept. '53; germination was excellent; the less of the weather, the above maintenance 
stand of grass was a deep, rich green. In practice for Bermuda lawns in late sum- 
May '54, vegetative material was trans- mer or early fall appear advisable trom 
planted to a permanent site. During the our experi " ^ 



Mght and two seed crops were and b) removal of 



)t greenness extended late i 
md b) rei 



• (Z-52), began to ' 



harvested. 

Our observations of year old plai 

elude the following: single plants are ZOYSIA GRASSES: Our 

clumpy in habit, rather stiff in appei ^ . . . , ^ 
but not harsh to the touch. FIov 
stalks are from ten to fifteen inche 
Several clumps of grass at the or 
seeding site survived the summer o 

although no water was applied following the color. We do not 

the removal of the vegetative material. these two grasses will I 

Desirable qualities so far observed in Califorr 

Microlaena stipoides for use as a turf- ness can be extended, 

grass are: 1) successful establishment fine textured grass, has closely paralleled 

from seed or vegetative material; 2) an the Bermudas this year in holding color 

appealing green color; 3) a good seed late into the fall. A portion of each of our 

producer; 4) excellent growth in heavy six selected strains of Z. tnatrella were 

soil; 5) maintained its color through one given the same fall maintenance as the 

full year. Bermudas; however, re-growth of the 

Future observations will include finding Zoysia has not been as rapid, 

answers to the: 1) possibility of "brown- GRASS COMBINATIONS: One attempt 

off^' after frost; 2) resistance to disease to produce an all-year green lawn ^Y^^^'^ 

height; 4) turf appearance alJd quality Zoys^ia) with ^^n'ter^g^ass (bl^ 

after two to five years establishment. has not proven entirely successful. Ever- 

The following is a report of the con- glades 2 and 3 and U-3 Bermudas plugged 

tinuing research on Bermuda and Zoysia into a thick stand of ^^'''O" ^^^"^^ ^^''"^[j^^.J" 

BERMUDA GRASSES: Everglades 1 2 nated the Merion. If the Bermudas and 



16 



LASCA LEAVES 



A SEEDSMAN LOOKS AT 
POLLINIZATION 




or more productive ot tr 
or flowers, one of the plant breeder's most 
useful techniques is the "cross." It is a 

accidentally useful unless the breeder 
possesses a considerable knowledge of 
genetics. The general public is quick to 



nowledge of the s 
oming-pigeon anc 



Such 



fness of the idea of 
: Only since Thomas 
Dssed garden peas in 
ted that one char- 



normally poilin 

course the choice of paj 
random, and the specie 
naturally "cross-pollinat 
At this point: enter i 

rween^'car'efully 

nth plants usuall 
;, buds or grafts, . 
uccessfu' 



1 be increased by ^ 
.ans until enough plants . 
i to supply the market. The 
been used since Mendel' 
published (and indeed, I 
the successful breeder of th 



on, altho^ug 
knowledge 



as date palms, which did in- 

uinng both a male plant and 

will brush the pollen from 
I petunia in your garden onto 
the same flower the inh will 



I will eventually form in tl 



may be glorious 
the pod hybrid flowers ar< 
•rmally happen: 



WINTER 1955 



17 



field, and the resulting seed planted in 
the garden, the plants that grow will be a 
startling mixture of blooms resembling 
one parent or the other in varying degree 
but ^generally combining the most unde- 

differ in size, shape, height, flower size, 
flower color, foliage color and shape, 
earliness, vigor, and a thousand other 



work is just begun when he makes his 

the F, (for first filial generation) hybrid 
seed. The seed produced by the hybrid, 
called the F,„ is planted the following sea- 
son and the above mentioned mixture of 
progeny is culled ruthlessly, leaving a few 
of the most promising plants to produce 
Ff^seed, which is again planted and 

suit IS fairly uniform and represents a new 
\uriety similar to both parents but not 



viable pollen, it's the end of the line— the 

and the strain is lost. Again, the dream 

but that is obviously a contradiction in 
terms, for melons are short-lived and such 
a cross would have to be hand -made anew 
every spring. 

And now we pause for a moment's con- 
templation. For it /s possible, of course, 
spring. Ex- 



vc, but possible. Givi 
known pedigree, the 



year after year, producing a perfectly pre- 
dictable hybrid every time, thus passing 
on to the gardener the virtues of a hybrid 
in annual flowers and vegetables. The 

Well, what does it cost to produce 
"hand-made seed" every year for sale, ^ as 

nated methods? That depends on many 



hrough 



c season, the length 



popcorn cans emphasize the word ^ hy- 
per bushel than ordinary corn, and of 



'Was not until Gregor Mendel proved thai 
the "break-up" occurred according tc 
definite laws, and co»U he preduted, thai 
the breeding of annuals got a solid sci- 
entific base, and progress has been con- 
siderably faster in the last fifty years. 



;op of the cost scale, 
:d at approximately 



Let us look ; 



lary petunias, but 
rior "yield, " this 
lal plant grower, 
ugh to justify the 



i one plant to supply the 



propagated from budwood. On t 
hand, when a fine petunia refuses 



Iclds" When the pistil 



I 



LASCA LEAVES 



must touch it but the pollen we deliberate- able to resist diseases, insects, and ex- 

ly place there. For that reason, the sta- tremes of climate. Such a virtue is wel- 

mens of the seed parent must be removed come indeed in our cultivated varieties, 

before they make pollen — in fact, to be many of which have become so inbred 

safe, before the flower has completely that they survive only when given loving 

opened. This, however, is a hand opera- care. 

tion, not too difficult when making one or Secondly, if the parents are sufficiently 

two crosses, but work indeed when mak- "true" (that is, pure in a genetic sense, 

ing thousands. A full-grown petunia plant which usually requires six to eight genera- 

with four or five new ones opening each hybrid of a cross between them will be re- 
morning all summer long. Since an acre markably uniform. That too, is a virtue 
of petunias contains about 25,000 plants, not always found in present garden types, 
one may calculate that roughly 100,000 Thirdly, many otherwise impossible 
flowers must be emasculated each morning things can be accomplished by the F, hy- 
to keep an acre of seed parents free from brid method. The seedless watermelon, 
self-contamination. Then, of course, the for example, is quite practical. The fruit 
proper pollen must be applied, again by develops normally but the seeds do not. A 
hand— but why go on ? There is no longer hybrid that behaves this way is the prod- 
any mystery as to why hybrid petunia seed uct of crossing certain pollen parents on 
costs money! to a perfectly normal seed parent. The 
Contrast this state of aflfairs with the double petunia is a hybrid too, made by 

bears just two tassels, and when these are normal single petunia. The result is all 
removed no more appear. They are big double, but these double flowers are in- 
enough to be grasped by hand, and, al- capable of bearing seed. Other applica- 
though a large field crew is needed for a tions are easy to imagine— how about a 
n garden lettuce, for example, which would 
e never "bolt" and make a seed head how- 
availablc for temporary work. Then the ever warm the weather That these sev- 
wind carries the pollen over from the eral virtues are worth what they cost has 
pollen parent and the job is done. Of been amply proved in recent years by the 
course, this is a very simplified explana- sellout response to hybrid tomatoes, ca- 
tion, and growing hundreds of acres of cumbers, melons, snapdragons and petu- 
hybrid corn this way is still quite a chore, nias offered on the market in a small way. 
but it is easy to see why the revolution in Largely, it has been the professional who 
plant breeding began long ago in corn has seen the benefit, but amateurs are dis- 
and is just now getting started in petunias, covering too, that the bonus of flowers and 



egetatively 
is the logi- 
. hybrid 



difficu . 

is well worth the additional 50c to a del 
lar invested. At the present time, most F 
hybrid work is concentrated in the simpl 



is such a costly thing to produ 

short-lived annuals, why bother with it? dragons, petunias) because they 

What does it offer in the farmer's field or ^° ^^rk with, but only a suit 

your own garden that makes it worth the "'S"^ for the composites (i.e 

priced The answer is heterosis or "hybrid ^smos, cauliflower) is lackmg 

vigor," first observed by Kolreuter in hybrid idea to sweep to every 

1760. Briefly, he noted that a cross be- the world of garden annuals. 

F, hybrid that was much more vigorous down to a point where hybrids 

than either parent. Not necessarily taller, and vegetables can be on the 

nor larger, but simply stronger and more duction basis now enjoyed by c 



WINTER 1955 



19 



solution lies in the development of seed 

expense of hand emasculation is avoided. 
There are already hybrid onions produced 
in this way, and prospects look good in 
many other species, but that's a subject for 
another article. In the meantime, try the 



new Fi hybrids in your own garden to sec 
what tremendous progress has already 
been made. After a slow start, plant 
breeders of annuals have at last got a 

their industry, and sparks will fly in the 



-^^11 loo well determmed but large speci- 
men trees can be seen at the Bel Air Hotel 
and on the grounds of the Southern Cali- 
fornia Automobile Club in Los Angeles. 
There is reported to be a tree on the 
grounds of the Patton State Hospital near 
San Bernardino, but the writer has not 
seen it. The Bel Air tree is the finest seen 
the area so far and is a spectacular 
S'ght when in full bloom. 

Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr., of La Canada, 
California, has worked long and hard to 
have more and better flowering trees 
planted along our streets and highways 
and in our parks. In October, 1953, he 
sent the Arboretum a large quantity of 
^- fpt^aosci seed obtained in Brazil and 

400 plants whTc'h have'been'dltributed't^o 
<^'t'es from San Diego to Santa Barbara 



GROWING NOTES 

George H. Spalding 

South American and east to Pomona for trial plantings 

IS it is presently test plantings is to determine the range of 

Drn water conditions. 
, -di- In the Nursery, the culture has not 
too well known in proved difficult. The seed, which is sup- 
seems to be some posed to have a short period of viability, 
. Mr. E. A. Men- was planted immediately in a mixture of 
National Horticul- Georgia peat moss and sponge rock (50- 
•y 1953, pages 21 50 by bulk). It germinated over a period 
to anyone inter- of 7 to 23 days. By May, 1954, the trees 
ibout this genus. were 4' tall in 5 gallon cans and ready for 

iful of the group ly growing trees. The trunk of C. speciosa 

il to Argentina. In is usually thickly covered with short 

is a tree to 70' or stubby spines. In this group of seedlings 

flowers from No- there was considerable variation from 

; hardiness has not heavily spined to completely spineless. 



LASCA LEAVES 





WINTER 1955 



21 



PETER RIEDEL 

(May 17, 1873 — December 5, 1954) cesco Franceschi, (see Lasca Leaves. Vol. 

Johannes Petrus Bruinwold Riedel, IV, No. 1, Winter 1954) who during 

plantsman and horticulturist, active in this period initiated the introduction of 

Southern California's horticultural history much of Southern California's adopted 

for a full half century, lives still in the flora. Functioning briefly as the Southern 

hearts and gardens of many a California California Acclimatizing Association, the 

family, generations of whom have settled partnership was shortly terminated. Dr. 

in the Santa Barbara area during his life- Franceschi returned to Italy on a respon- 

y e by which he is best known ^_^^_J^ current decade Peter Riedel 

udy which soon made him a valu- lating through his long lifetime, working 



residents wit 



of volume 



owledge and activity. His particular "Plants for Extra-Tropical Regions—^ 



Catalog of the Plants That Arc 
- the home garden and the Been, or Might Be Grown Whe 



\vocado Thr 
Brief Mention of Other 
Should Know." Alphal 



one instance at least, is record 

capable teaching of adult classes in horti- "S" in this work had been reaelKd. a.ui 

culture, both daytime and evenings, dur- because some provision has 1> cn made to 

'ng the prime of his life after abundant carry the work to a possible completion, 

experience whereof he could speak with it is hopsd that the finished work ma\ hc 

1 t> Later still he served as Horti- made available to horticultun.sts. Akhou^uh 

cultural Consultant in the Park Depart- the recent past has witnessed a slowin.e up 

ment of Santa Barbara. His whole aim of working tempo, and the immediate 

'ippears to have been directed toward weeks preceding Peter Riedel s "last trib- 

perhaps especially for Atje Koopmans 
Riedel, his childhood sweetheart, and wife 

easily accessible to the public eye. since 1897 who survives him, still, his 

The basic training of Peter Riedel was relinquishing of his natural life has its 

•acquired after his High School days, in constructive aspect in the heritage he has 

his native country at the Gardeners' Trade left to his fellow-horticulturists and num- 

Schoo! and the Agricultural and Horticul- erous friends — an influence to be felt in 

rural College at Wageningen. He emi- the future beyond the confines of the 

grated to the United States in 189.3. In boundaries of California through his work 

1905 he entered a partnership with the and study for the benefit of true gardeners 

famed Dr. Emanuele Orazio Fenzi, known everywhere who may read of his work 

to his American associates as Dr. Fran- and profit thereby. 



LASCA LEAVES 



ARBORETUM MILESTONE 

Direclor, Los Angeles Shite coid County Arbor e turn 
R. J. Seibert 

The month of January, 1955, marks Although the Arboretum can only be, 
a significant step in the progress of the opened on Sundays for the time being, 
Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, and until further developments and plant- 
Members of the Arboretum Foundation ings are done, the public will now have 
and readers of Usca Leaves will be inter- the opportunity of viewing the Arboretum 
ested to know that the Arboretum opens and following closely its development 
to the public on this date, to be open on Of particular interest is the historical 
Sundays only until further notice. preserve which includes the Hugo Reit" 
The Arboretum will be open between Adobe (to be restored), the "Lucky 
the hours of 10:30 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. Baldwin "Queen Anne" Cottage, now 
Admission is free of charge, but everyone fully restored and the Baldwin Coach 
entering will be required to sign an ad- Barn (to be restored). Within the H' 
mittance card. Members of the Founda- torical preserve may be seen the old tr< 
tion, bearing their membership card and planted by the previous owners 
showing it to the guard at the entrance at "Rancho Santa Anita," the home site 
301 N. Baldwin Avenue will be admitted which now comprises the grounds of t 
without signing an admittance card. This Los Angeles State and County Arboretum.' 
applies to members only and you are re- The Los Angeles State and County 
quested to have your guests and family Arboretum is devoted to the study of 1 
sign the admittance card, or write for ad- exotic trees, shrubs and other ornamental \ 
mittance cards ahead of time. plants which can be grown in Los Angeles j, 
The Arboretum Foundation is under- County and Southern California. The i 
writmg the rental of a grounds transpor- plantings which are to form the future 
tation vehicle which will facilitate the plant displays at the Arboretum arc l.u uc 
public in moving from the main entrance ly obtained through seed from many dit- 
to the historical preserve and back to the ferent countries of the world. The plant. 



'ill mean that the 

• portions of the Arb 



1 these seeds a 



1'^ ^'f^^'- Here the public will be able to see and 

the Foundation is underwriting learn more about the plants which are 

ans of transportation and its in- grown and which plant lovers would like 

, the public and members will be to grow in Los Angeles County, 
expected to contribute a donation in boxes ^.^^^.^^ p^^^i^^^j the Ar- 



• be provided c 



infancy of development and only very ^ y a 

limited portions of the Arboretum are ^^unty Park one and a half m.ks cast 

ready (ox public view, the public will as- Arboretum. 

semble at the Main Gate at 301 N. Bald- For further details regarding new poli- 

win Avenue from which conducted tours cies and regulations attendant upon the 

will leave on every hour and half hour be- opening of the Arboretum to the P^'l"'''^' 

of 10:30 a.m. and 4:30 see pages 12 and 13, and NAMt^. 



le hours ot 10:30 a.m. and 4:30 see pages 12 
the Sunday openings. NOTES, and N 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 




William Beresford Percy C. Everett 

Manchester Boddv Earle E. Humphrie 

Howard Bodger Mildred E. Maihia: 

Philip Edward Chandler Alfred W. Robert; 

Ralph D. Cornell Ronald B. Townsei 

Richard Westcott 




Annual Member $ 5.00 ycai 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) . . . 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

LiFe Membership 500.00 



MiiETiNGS: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummet Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 



Box 688— Arcadia— California 
Telephone DOuglas 7-3444 



LASCA LEAVES 

The official publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute 

sponsors of 

LOS ANGELES STATE AxND COUNTY ARBORETUM 



Operated by 
LOS ANGELES COUNTY DEPARTMENT 
of 

ARBORETA AND BOTANIC GARDENS 
Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

DOUGLAS 7.3144 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



Trustees 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer 

Robert Casamajor 



Ralph D. Cornell Mrs. John R. Mage 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel Mosher 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Rich 

J. D. Funk Harold F. Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. She 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Henry C. Soto 

Charles S. Jones Frank E. Titus 

John C. Macfarland Frits W. Went 



Fred W. Roeweka 



Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Founders $1,000.00 or more 

Benefactors 5,000.00 or more 

Club memberships are available at any amount, from $10 a year or more. 
All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 



SPRING 1955 



Lasca Leaves 

m of the Southern California Horti 
January" April" July and October.' 



Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

William Hertrich Russell J. Seibert 



Arborctums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California— Elizabeth McClintock 

Southern California — Ronald B. Townsend 

Economic Plants Russell J. Seibert 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C. Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 

Taxonomy of Exotics Mildred Mathias 

Taxonomy of Natives Philip A. Munz 

Tanet Wright, Editor 



CONTENTS 



LASCA LEAVES 




28 



LASCA LEAVES 



J' other plai 



:xhibiti 



ught to thai 



gonia is still found _ 
tions. The plant is of erect growth to ap- 
proximately twenty-four to thirty-six 
inches high, but as the plant matures it has 
the habit of becoming pendulous. The 
lanceolate leaves on very short petioles are 
four to five inches long and sharply ser- 
rated, bright green above, with red mar- 
gins, and pale green beneath. The flowers 
are produced on short stems, in the angles 
of the leaves, and are bright cinnabar- 
scarlet, the male flower being twice as long 
as the female. Klotzch placed B. boli- 
viensis in a new proposed genus called 
Barya because the stamens were in an 
elongated column, instead of the globular 
cluster typical of begonias. However, De 
CandoUe eventually merged the new genus 

Begonia pearcei was the next outstand- 
ing discovery to be introduced by Veitch's 
Nursery. This species was sent to England 
from La Paz, Bolivia, by Richard Pearce. 
As this begonia had yellow flowers it was 
an important parent in introducing the 
yellow and orange colors in the tuberous 
begonia hybrids. These colors were un- 
■ 1 the tuberous hybr' ' 



ous hybrids is the result of B. pearcei an- 
cestry. This species was distributed in 
1866, and it is still quite common in our 
present-day collections. 

During the year 1866 Richard Pearce 
introduced another tuberous begonia 
which he had discovered near Cuzco in 
Peru, at an elevation of 12,000 to 12,500 
feet; it was named Begonia veitchii. and 
was first flowered in England in 1867. 
Because this plant was found at such high 
altitudes it was thought that it might prove 
hardy in certain parts of England. How- 
ever, B. vehchti failed to withstand the 
combined efl^ects of cold and damp English 
winters. It is mentioned as a superb spe- 
cies and was described by Sir J. D. 
Hooker, in the Botanical Magazine as "Of 
all the species of Begonia known, this is, 
I think, the finest. With the habit of Saxi- 
fraga ciliata, immense flowers of a vivid 



B. rosaeflora was another of Richard 
Pearce's important introductions, and 
though it resembled B. veitchn there were 
• ' difl 

color of the wild rose rather than th< 
cinnabar-red of B. veitchii. B. rosaejlou 
was actively engaged in the production ol 
hybrids and played an important role it 
producing some of the most beautifu 
tuberous begonias of the late nineteentl 



nothe; 



crossing light-coloured varieties, the ti 
white-flowered tuberous Begonia was < 



flowei 

ent home by him 
some years later, proved identical with the 
seedling known as Queen of the Whites." 

Begonia davisii was the last Andean 
species of tuberous begonias to be intro- 
duced during Veitch's time. This beg 
was named after its dis 
it growing near Chupc, in Peru. Because 
of its dwarf compact habit and erect 
flowers this begonia played an important 



rhornd 



John Sedei 



vho rapidly evolved several 



cies used by John Seden in producing the 
first hybrid tuberous begonia raised in 
England. The result of the cross between 
B. boliviensis and an unnamed Andean 

cSmplinTentTo the hyGizeV' The Royal 
Horticultural Society awarded Begonia x 
sedenii their Silver Floral Medal as the 
"best new plant shown for the first time 
at their New Plant Show held on June 2 
1869. This begonia was first distributed 
in 1870, and was figured in the Plant 
Catalogue of Veitch's Nursery of that 
year, described as "of the same upright 



SPRING 1955 



29 



lightly rose-coloured ; the flowers are of blush colour, and of the finest shape, 
he richest magenta and of large size." During 1876 two named hybrids, 

The first double-flowered tuberous be- goma x sedenn and Begonia x interm 

;onia was obtained from seeds produced were crossed and produced the n; 

>y self-fertilized flowers of Begonia x variety Begonia x Acme. It is desc: 

vc/eui/. in the Plant Catalogr^ ^"-^ — " 

Begouiaxchelsoni was the nexthcgoni^ ' ' 

lybrid produced by John Seden and it was ^^e of a delicate orange-pu 

he result of a cross between Begonia x a deeper ^ shade j)f orange- 



iwing description: "The flow 
te oran^ 

"the flo' 



male or staminate ones from 3 to 4 inches 
between the extremities of the alternate 
narrower petals ; the petals of both stami- 
nate and pistillate flowers are beautifully 
veined symmetrically with the edges." 

Bego, ^ 



This hybrid was hrst distnbu 
2 and described in the Plant C 



u u ^ ^ 1 the darkest simuc . 
haht It partakes .^^ ^ater K; 

n.ensis, bemg a ^^^^...^^ . 



fifteen to eighteen inches. Thi 
much the form and substance of Begonia 
Veitchii, but are toothed like Begonia 
boliviensis. The flowers are of the size 
and form of Begonia Veitchii and re- 
senihle it also in colour, but are of a rather 

In 1 874 two more begonia hybrids were 
orfered: Begonia x Stella, the progeny of 
^'■■g^'>^'' x^ H^clenii cvos^ftd with B. veitchii. 

Bcgon/a x Vesuvius "had bright orange- 
combined 



lant branchin va...w.3 x.v.... oJf-fertilized seed. ' 
^ '"ge haght' of ^^The^ TgolTx Em^eVo^' resuking^f rom 



Following Begonia x Emperor appeared 
Begonia x Monarch resulting from the 
crossing of two hybrids Begonia x sedenii 

tioned that this^begonia "with brighj ver- 

buted, undoubtedly one of the finest of all 

The hybrid tuberous-rooted begonias 
sefui a J7opula"r"subjecrfor produced mostly flowers of various shades 
^ ^ -ds, but a definite break occurred with 

1 ranee of Begonia x Queen of the 
es which was developed from a batch 
^Zii, \- ""cheluwi of seedlings of B. rosaeflora. Begonia x 
.in ,\nA it i. rlP Qucen of the Whites is described as "re- 
bloonW variet'; ■^:^-'^bling_ ^'f;;'2^:^^f^^f]^^^^'^ 
?ins ; the flowers, 2 to 21/, inches 



r-bedding." OflFered for disti 
1875 were Bt-^^?;/;^ X Excelsior 
■1 X Model. Begonia x Exce 



, of Beg 



f^^'ynia. It was one of the bedding Be- u.an.cLu., ii .m-wuK. u, .u.uu., v 
gonias of its time " ^'■^^^'>' Produced on erect scapes, and 

^r,. oftpHn, of .he cross between.^.- -^LS oTa,, ^ wEnd^l^, 



Model. The flow- 



d light- 
ed forms now so numerous." 



LASCA LEAVES 



AN HONOR TO WILLIAM HERTRICH 

A second national honor came to Wil- others of equal stature. A full fifty years 

liam Hertrich, Curator Emeritus of the ago Mr. Hertrich, as a young man of 

Huntington Botanical Gardens, San Ma- twenty-seven years, ten of which had al- 

rino, when The Garden Club of America ^eady been devoted to apprc_nt.ce pursuit 

bestowed Its Medal of Honor upon him ^^Tn aKni^^ 

during Its annual national con^'entlOn in j^.^ ^^^^ supervisor and super- 
Houston, Texas, where he and Mrs. Her- .^^^^^^^^ ^j^^ ^H^^^y E Hunting- 
trich journeyed to attend the presentation ^^^.^ ^^-^^^^ ^3^^^^^ Marino. After 
banquet, March 9th, 1955. The award Mr. Huntington's death in 1927 he be- 
had not been made since 1949 and Mr. came Curator of the Botanical Gardens. 



direction this public t 
iful valley Ian, 



of beautiful valley land, wit 
nt Huntington 



A'hen he was awarded the Galler 
1950 George Robert White gold Medal portion and enviable cultural importance 
of Honor given annually "for eminent it enjoys today. The famed institution now 

which was made in San Marino by the runs more smoothly because of the stal- 

Society's representative, Alfred C. Hottes wart yet self-effacing service of the man 

(see pp. 36, 37, current issue Lasca who still devotes his major energies to 

Leaves), on April 7, 1951. Within the furthering its value as a repository of 

1940-50 decade, Mr. Hertrich shared this sound horticultural knowledge and plant 

honor with Sir Arthur William Hill, Di- material. The editorial body of Uua 

rector of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Leaves is both honored and edified by Mr. 

England, Dr. Elmer D. Merrill of the Hertrich's close and ready association with 

Arnold Arboretum, the late Lord Aber- its duties and responsibilities ever since 

conway. Royal Horticultural Society, Lon- its inception. We salute him with hearty 

don, Dr. Wilson Popenoe, Dir. Escuela congratulations on this new recognition 

Agricola Panamericana, Honduras, and of his fine purposes. 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

The California Arboretum Voundafion. Inc.. takes pleasure in announcing the appoint- 
ment of Mrs. Lee Wray Turner as Executive Secretary-Manager of The Foundation to 
become effective April 1, 1955. Mrs. Turner's prior acti ' ' ' 
years has been the directorship of the Film Location Bure 
of Southern California. In this capacity she has had freqi 
turn and its personnel who welcome her charming etiiciency in membership on the st 
From the above date Mrs. Turner's office will be maintained at 291 North Old Rai 
Road, Arcadia, at the Los Angeles State and County Arboretum. The new office ti 
phone for The Califnyma Arhorelum Vnumlatiou, Im.. will be DOuglas 7-S2()7. 



32 



LASCA LEAVES 



wet or dry. I do not know if these fibres white mealy tomentu 

are utilized where the plant is native. The with short-pedicelled I 

fibres are in a single layer, unhke those to fijt 

distributed throughout the body of the sheaths, the individual flowei 

leaf. The tissue between upper and lower quarters-inch long, three-petalled, peek 

leaf epidermis is a thin layer of transpar- out from their individual white bractlets. 
ent spongy cell mass, fairly thick towards The flower details are also most in- 

the stem end, and able to take up a^sur- teresting. Petals arc about three-quarters- 

fong dry period are deeply channelled and wine-coloured, almost maroon, with a white 

prominently ribbed, but with moisture be- edge at the rounded tip. The three over- 



and opening up the entire leaf open wide, but they show th. 



few plants show a more refreshed 
ince after a shower. The " 



pistil, and a ring of surrounding I 
yellow anthers. Within a few day 

rows of veins are another source of mter- inflorescence is fully developed, about 

est, showing an attractive wave pattern, two to two-and-a-half feet in height, with 

the outermost vein forming a triangular thirty to fifty clusters, in the same arrange- 

hooked brownish prickle as the crest of ment around the stout stem that groups 

the wave, the horn-like point sharply bent the leaf rosette, apparently in a double 

at an approximately right angle, never spiral. The first flowers will still be in 

curved, its point paralleling the leaf mar- perfect condition when the very tip 

gin, small, about a quarter-inch— but blooms, and will keep in fresh appear- 

small as they are, their knife-like sharp- ance for about two or three weeks, if the 

ness and fine point can penetrate the skm weather is cool and not too dry. The 

and lacerate severely. flowers seem to have a slightly fruity odor. 

One might ask, "Why keep such a Cool humid weather will favor pollination 
thing in a garden.'" It is at flowering time and development of the fruit. The flowers 
that Br. baLwsae has an almost irresisti- seem to be self-fertile; ants probably help 
ble appeal; in spring, or early summer, or in the pollinizing. The fruit is a bright 
at almost any time if a fairly mature speci- orangey berry, three-quarters to one inch 
men is shocked by transplanting, the in diameter, — roundish, but when the 
center leaves begin to change color. With- numerous fruits are tightly packed in a 
in a few weeks, slowly at first, the tips cluster, they are likely to appear deformed 
redden, and quickly the center of the because of the pressure. The tip of each is 
plant assumes a brilliant red color, — a slightly depressed and bears the very per- 
many- rayed flaming star, giving the plant sistent remains of the dried papery petals 
its common name, "heart-of-fire," al- and stamens and pistil. In its early stage, 
though it shares this name with other the fruit is covered with a white, floccose 
Bromels as well, which have similar hab- tomentum that soon wears ofl^. Each short- 
its. In the very center, very slowly at first, pedicelled berry is subtended by the tough 
quickly after the start is made, the flower- papery hraitlet alxnit three-quarters mch 
ing stalk rises, and rising with it is the long and three-eighths inch wide. The 
bright crown of leaves, surrounding the 
stem in a loose double spiral, the leaf 
blades at right angles to the spike- 



bases tightly sheathing the short branches These 



fifteen seed 

us pulp with fibre 
'hese fibres runnin 



34 



LASCA LEAVES 



the leaf-rosette; light brown spears, slight- 
ly club-shaped, grow upward and out- 
ward, a head forming which resembles a 
pineapple, and the one- to three-foot, or 
more, stolon, arches toward the ground. 



three-quarters-inch wide at base, covered 
with a fine powdery tomentum, the tightly 
clasping base brown and horny, shielding 

The^head, Icanint; forward at a fo^rty-five 



degr< 



eddy, 



plant. Upon prolonged good contact with 
damp earth, this head will push out root- 
lets from the short, spreading, more 
papery basal leaves surrounding its neck, 
and with astonishing rapidity, on its own 
roots, fed from the mother-plant, a new 
Br. balansa, is established. 



generally seen where i 
_- . ___ _ome out-of-the-way cc 
where nothing else will grow. 



ere nothing else will grow. 



rly frost- 



the length of time it 

lage it tolerates 28°F. 
te patches may appear 

rophytic and 



bal. 



agreeable 



semi-xerophytic plants 
habits that would m 



puyas' All these may be 

from early spring when the days w 



id the showy 
Desert 



COVER PICTURE 



and dry up, and by this time the young 
plants have reached considerable size and 
fully hide the dried remains of the old 

t^dy appearance.^ ^ ^ 

Br. balansae demanding: it grows 



soil for the plant has no tap-root. The 
coarse fibery roots cannot penetrate into 
hard clayey soil. It does get along \\ ith a 
minimum of nourishment and water, 
tenaciously clinging to life under long ne- 
glect, but the plant will respond to good 

the hot summer months, and a liftle fertf- 
lizer. Under favorable growing condi- 
tions— i.e. fairly loose soil, with leafmold 
and some plant debris — it will grow many 



SPRING 1955 



35 



PLANT INTRODUCTIONS FOR 1954 

Philip Edward Chandler 



Jan, 1955 

Verbena peruv:ana (V. chawaedry folia) it in 

is an evergreen, almost ever-blooming, stem: 

perennial prostrate ground cover, with grou 

scabrous gray-green leaves l"-2" long, ob- The 

long or lance-oblong and pointed, sharply gray-green edged with maroon, form a 

The profusion of flowers lire scarlet in they drop off as new ones appear at the 
corymb-like clusters which elongate into branch terminals. The total composition is 
short spikes. The plant roots as it spreads, a slender line-drawing of vertical to lean- 
forming a solid mat of furry foliage which ing stems topped with ribboned whips. An 
bronzes slightly with cold nights. It has almost indestructible house plant, it is cs- 
long been established on the Vavra estate pccially effective against a plain rough 
in Bel Air, and in a few gardens in Santa wall m sun or shadow. D. Diargiudta 
Barbara, but only this year has it appeared tolerates much root crowding and neglect; 
on the market. A native of Peru, southern it is equally arresting out-of-doors or in- 



on of sh; 



'X'lt. Like all of 'itsTs^s'pe/sistent^in, V. Sech/ni stlbl, (Brown BeaSs), and masses 

does require hot sun, fairly good oi Crassula aygentea. 

drought. Its dose-matting habit com- native with long narrow goldcn-grcen 

mends it for holding loose banks, and it is leaves (in California), without petioles, 

effective in raised planting islands because clustered at ends of branches where hang 

of a natural propensity to cascade. Har- (in Hawaii, probably not in California - 

^^^lu brysum ''pe%t!fl]>r''' ^' " ^oldln 'f>m tT. 'I'n l.ght^sun o"r' nart'shrde 



;cnerally available as a small mdoor the fine po.nt. f l^- ^-"'^- ^re S.J.>. 

len, but few purchasers realize .ts /^/.v,/^/' )////. v a.ul IhJ/.u hr;Uo,n. 

ite pattern value unless familiar with Continued next issue 



SPRING 1955 



37 




LASCA LEAVES 



BLUE-FLOWERED NATIVE PLANTS OF CALIFORNIA 

p. C. Everett 

Superwteudent of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. Oareniont, Calif. 

Ana Botanic The majority of the blue-flowered spe- 
; often com- cies are among the annuals, perennials and 



nented favorably upon the naturali: 
nassing of native annuals, perennials a 
ihrubs. One of the frequent and inten 
ing comments has been regarding 
wealth of blue-flowered native plants s< 
;n these displays. This interest has si 



Considering the subject of flower color 
for the garden, especially the lack or 

ing to find that from the world floras have 
come comparatively few blue-flowered 
plants for cultivation. One can dig 
through long lists of plants and pick out a 



of the world's plant population are blue- 
flowered. This rarity of blue flowers has 
been attributed to the fact that this color 

which are supposed to be rare. 

If one follows the exact science of color, 
then the California flora could be said to 
contain rarely any blue-flowered plants. 



nd blue-fl( 



blue-flow 
find 



ch flo 



irly do 



ch plants inhabiting the higher 
mountains, the area west of the Sierra 
Nevada, and the coastal slopes of southern 
California. It has been stated that yellow- 
flowered species are predominant in the 
desert regions, white in the arctic and 
sub-arctic regions. Blue flowers are rare 
in the hot deserts. Our deserts have a 
number of blue-flowered species, but one 
can hardly say that they dominate the des- 
ert floral scene. 



; groups: 



California wild lilacs, sages, lupines, and 
nightshades. There are no blue-flowered 
native trees even though some of our na- 
tive shrubs attain almost tree-like propor- 



For 



/ill {its 



of > 



mon blue-flowered annuals and bulbous 
plants, following with the perennials and 
closing with some of the shrubby plants. 
Perhaps the easiest to grow of our annuals 
are the commonly known Globe Gilias, 
members of the Phlox Family and of 
widespread distribution in California. 
These include Gilia caf>itata and acbil- 
leaefoUa and their many varieties, which 
have finely cut feathery foliage, grow up 
to 3 feet tall, and are topped with many 
heads of bright blue to violet flowers. Al- 
though they do well in nearly all soil 
types, they prefer good loams and the seed 



Best I 



loosening the top ; 



; obtained by 



light raking followed by a thorough soak- 
ing. Germination should take place with- 
in a week or two If weeded and given an 



well-developed plants 
Flowering will continue 
even lune, if addition 



of the blue-flowcrcd 
ie;, godctias, or the 
own bright orange- 



are well-known and quite widely , 
Among these is Phacelia Parry/ 
deep violet flowers, P. lisada of 



LASCA LEAVES 



Among the perennial group of blue- 
flowered plants, we especially recommend 
the native irises and penstemons. These 
may be purchased from the specialist 
nurseryman as growing plants or seed. 
None of them is difficult to grow, each 
having very simple reciuircmciits. If seed 



open ground 



id an exceedingly lovely yellow 
: highly variable, is being used 
1 in hybridizing with the Cali- 



plants 



spread out 

to 2 teet. fenstemon laetus is a less well- 
known species that has rich blue to bluish- 
purple flowers. Penstemon spectabilis, 
often called Blue Beard-Tongue, is a 
taller and coarser species with long spikes 
up to 2 feet above a 3-foot plant with 
equal spread. The large, branching in- 
florescence is covered with hundreds of 
lavender-purple flowers with blue lobes, 
often more or less a deeper blue. All of 
the penstemons need well-drained soils, 
preferably of a gritty nature, and should 
he allowed to be on their own after estab- 
lished. They will do well under general 
Lulture, but will live longer when ktt en- 
tirely alone. When used in quantities on 

for the masses of flowers produced in the 
later spring and early summer months 
when one's enthusiasm for gardening 

Among the large number of California 
shrubs there are only about four groups 
wliich may be said to have blue flowers. 
These are the nightshades, some of the 
inembers of the Sage Family, the Cali for- 



42 



LASCA LEAVES 



eral, flowers that clothe these shrubs in 
wild abundance. Each year from early to 
late spring, some part of the California 
hills from one end of the state to the other 
is softened to smoky blues or white by the 
thick clothing of this common constituent 
of the plant life of our state. To go along 

diversity of sizes and shapes of plants^ 
From the creeping and half reclining 

upright forms, we have a wide choice of 
material for garden usages. Banks, back- 
grounds, hillside coverings and specimen 
plants are all there for the choosing. True, 
some of the species prove to be short-lived 

varieties that seem to withstand common 
garden culture. Careful choosing and 
placement of these varieties will add a 
new tone to your garden. One that will 
add color, while evoking exclamations of 



serving as a useful foil for other plants. 

In the preceding paragraphs only a very 
few of the blue-flowered California native 
plants have been discussed. There are 
many more possibilities unknown to the 

garden picture. It must be admitted that a 

for the most prominent parts of our gar- 
dens. They need special attention as to 
proper placement and use in the garden 
just as do most of the commonly culti- 
vated plants. For diflicult situations, dry 
hillsides or rocky soils with good drainage, 
there are few plants that can compete, es- 
pecially where little care and water is the 
order of the day. And to tie the garden 
scene together with the cooling and soften- 
ing efl^ects of the many shades of blue, the 
California native plants with their soft 
grays and wide shadings of green foliage, 
make a welcome addition to the modern 



1955 CALIFORNIA INTERNATIONAL FLOWER SHOW 



LASCA LEAVES 



period was similar to the sai 
Station E. The curves for the 
from April to the end of tl 

tion 'l, but the monthly dew 

^ Station 3 0-5 Meters, Ju 
This was the first attemp 



of both years, 
more dew than for any 
other period of the year. The least deposit 



Dew Gradient 
le monthly amounts of dew a 
level, a wave like pattern appears for the level for any particular station, kno 
dew distribution throughout the year. The the dew gradient, can be obtained 
frequency of each crest is about three the curves. 

months, as is each trough. The amplitude This gradient for Station 1 divid 
lar in both years. The total amount of dew from Dec. through March, the ran: 
Station 2 (Grab's CoxTr, " \ )\'his sta- ground upSard.^ In othcT words.^ th( 
from Jan. to April ; liowcvcr. the curve end, from April through Aug!, no d 







VvA 






1' 



Fig. 2. Graphs of monthly dew distribution for Stations I, 2, and 3. 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



Officers 1954 

Vice-President and Executive Secretary Ronald B. Townsend 

Secretary GEORGE H. Spalding 

Treasurer Kenneth Bishop 



William Beresford Percy C. Everett 

Manchester Boddy Earle E. Humphries 

Howard Bodger Mildred E. Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Alfred W. Roberts 

Ralph D. Cornell Ronald B. Townsenc 

Richard Westcott 



advisory council 



Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) ... 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 



Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 

address 
Box 688— Arcadia— California 
Telephone DOuglas 7-3444 



LASCA LEAVES 



LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM 



Operated by 
LOS ANGELES COUNTY DEPARTxMENT 



ARBORETA AND BOTANIC GARDENS 



Arcadia, Califoi 

DOUGLAS 7-3 i 




CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



Board of Trustees 

President Samuel A- 

Vice-President Mrs. Harry 

Vice-President Robert Ca: 

Treasurer Howard A. 

Ralph D. Cornell Mrs. John R. Mage 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Samuel Mosher 
John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richari 

J. D. Funk Harold F. Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Sheare 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Henry C. Soto 
Charles S. Jones Frank E. Titus 

John C. Macfarland Frits W. Went 



Fred W. Roewe 





$ 5.00 


Annual Membership 


10.00 




25.00 


Annual Sustaining Membership 


100.00 




250.00 




500.00 


Founders 






5,000.00 or more 


Club memberships are available at any amount, jn 


9m $10 a year or more. 


All contributions deductible under Federal i 


[ncome Tax Law. 






Box 688— Arcadia— Califorr 




Telephone DOuglas 7-3444 





50 



LASCA LEAVES 




LASCA LEAVES 



in our own garden in La Canada and is also been applied to Chorisia speaosa 
about 15 feet tall although it has not yet which may have a slight enlargement of 
bloomed. The other was given to the Los the lower portion of the trunk but which 
Angeles State and County Arboretum is usually tall and straight. In Brazil the 
where it is well established and from chorisia is called Paineira. 
which a number of additional trees have There are at least three mature speci- 
bccn propagated by cuttings. mens of Chons/a wsignis in California: 
Several days ago I learned for the first one in the UCLA Botanic Garden in West 
time about another mature chorisia tree in Los Angeles which withstood a low tern- 
Pomona in the garden of Dr. and Mrs. perature of 18° in 1949, one in Elysian 
W. G. Stahl. Dr. Stahl says that the tree Park in Los Angeles which is probably 
was in the garden when he acquired the Chorisia iusign/s and which according to 
property about ten years ago and is prob- Frank Shearer, former Superintendent of 
ably about 42 years old. Mr. and Mrs. the Los Angeles Park Department, was 
Elmore Menninger of Arcadia have a obtained from the Plant Introduction 
young chorisia about nine years old which Ser^'ice of the U. S. Department of Agri- 
bloomed this past winter for the first time, culture and was planted about 50 years 
Botanically speaking, the classification ago, and one in the Huntington Botanic 
of the chorisia is somewhat confused. The Garden in San Marino which is twelve 
genus is a member of the Bombax family years old and which has bloomed twice. 
{Bombacaeae) and is closely related to According to Donald WooUey, Super- 
the Ceibas (kapok tree) . There are two intendent of the UCLA Botanic Garden, 
principle species of chorisia. Chorisia the tree there which was formerly errone- 
• species ously labelled as a Ceiba, has been posi- 

metimes tinian botanists as Chorisia itisigiiis and 

of the is indigenous to dry pampas plains. This 

pea-like may explain the function of the dispro- 

capsule portionately enlarged trunk as a storage 

iiderable reservoir for water to carry the plant 

_:hin this through a dry season. Mr. WooUey said 

species, especially with respect to the shape that this tree was obtained from the U. S. 

and color of the petals E. A. Menninger, Experiment Station in La Jolla and was 

Florida's "flowering tree man ' has carried planted in 1936 by Dr. A. M. Johnson 

out a great deal of research on the classi- and Mr. George Gruenewegen (see page 

nger mentions two other species 

\ the Ur 

held in St. Petersburg, November 5, 6, 7, from the coastal 



Tin: 



. grows rapKlly and i 



tmnk and flowers which arc commonly emplified by the Bel' Air tree. Its first 

white or cream colored with brownish flowering usually occurs when it is eight 

peculiar shape of the trunk it is known from October to January with the peak 

in Spanish speaking countries as "Palo occurring the latter part of November and 

borracho " or drunken tree. The name has the first week or two of December. As 



SUMMER 1955 



53 



and color of 
cussed in considerable detail in Mr. Men- 
ninger's monograph. In general, the 
flowers are large, with petals 4 to 5 inches 
long, somewhat resembling the appearance 
of a hibiscus. There are 5 petals which 
.idely 



may be almost white or purplish. 

Some trees drop only their upper leaves 
when in bloom (the Bel Air tree) while 
others are completely deciduous when in 
bloom such as the Auto Club tree. Thorns 
are a variable feature. Among the 400 
trees which were grown at the Arboretum, 
most of them had stiff spines on the lower 
portion of the trunk although some were 
nearly thornless and a few were excessive- 
ly armored. Apparently an excessive de- 
velopment of thorns robs the tree of 
energy for growth since the very thorny 
ones were invariably shorter than the rest. 
If the trees are to be planted in locations 
where thorns are undesirable, they can 
easily be scraped off and do not injure the 



Argentina nearly two years ago when the 
chorisias were in seed and I was able 
without difficulty to obtain many seeds 

P.^Krug^ of the Forestry Service in Sao 
Paulo and Mr. Martin Broen, Director of 
the Botanic Garden in Buenos Aires. Most 
of these seeds were sent by air mail direct- 
ly to the Los Angeles State and County 
Arboretum and were planted immediately. 

and approximately 400 plants of Cborisia 
speciosu were grown. About 50 of them 
are planted on the Arboretum grounds, 



: Baldw 



Chor} 



of the Arboretum and trees have been 
distributed to various communities in 
Southern California, including Los An- 
geles, Pasadena, San Diego, Long Beach, 
Santa Barbara and Los Angeles County. 
Beverly Hills has planted 80 chorisias, 
most of which were obtained from the 
Arboretum, in the center parkway of Sun- 
set Blvd. which was formerly a bridle 
trail. Thus ends the era of scarcity of 
chorisias in Southern California. 
COVER PICTURE 



r likes i 



lished. 



Both trees will tolerate 
•rost and will withstand 
sional frost when estab- 
mld be unwise to plant 



perature habitually drops below 28°. 
The few chorisia trees in the Los Ar 

"lore the seeds lose their viability withi 
a matter of weeks and in the past it hi 
proved difficult 



t.ngs. 



. RusseU ]. Seibert, until re- 



and County Arboretum, stal 
cuttings from young trees, vegetative pi 
pagation is now fairly simple, whert 
cuttings from mature trees usually fail 
root. This probably accounts for the sc. 
city of these trees in this area. 



LASCA LEAVES 



THIRTY-FIRST NATIONAL SHADE TREE CONFERENCE 
1955 

Walti-r J. Barrows, Editor, Western Chapter Newsletter 



Following the official opening of the 
Mst annual meeting of the National Shade 
Tree Conference, by President Carl Fen- 
ner, at 10:00 a.m. on August 2, 1955, in 
Santa Barbara, Calif., an address of wel- 

Chief of the Division of Beaches and 
Parks, State of California. Mr. Drury has 
been serving the state of California in this 

%\ ls diJector of the National Park Service 

on the Save-the-Redwoods League, serv- 
ing as secretary of this organization for 
some twenty years. He is currently cor- 
responding member of the American So- 
ciety of Landscape Architects, and trustee 
of the National Trust for Historic Preser- 
vation. Mr. Drury has always evidenced a 
real interest in trees and their care. 

opening session wfll be Brian O. Mulligan 
on the topic, ' Shade and Streetside Trees 
of the Pacific Northwest- to be illustrated 
with Kodachromes. Currently director of 
the University of Washington Arboretum, 
Mr. Mulligan was formerly horticultural 
advisor to the Air Ministry, London, Eng- 
land, and prior to that was assistant to the 
director of the Royal Horticultural So- 
ciety's Gardens, of which he is also a 

Dr W. H. Chandler, Professor of 
Agriculture, Emeritus, University of Cali- 
tornui at Los Angeles, whose fifty years of 
activity in this field have inspired his lec- 

-unonu them the University of Missouri^ 
Cornell, and University of California at 
Los Angeles. Dr. Chandler s instructive 
and practical booklet, "Pruning Orna- 
mental Trees, Shrubs, and Vines," pub- 
lished as Agricultural Extension Service 
Circular No. 183, was written in collabo- 
ration with Mr. Ralph Cornell and con- 



dents and professional practitioners alike. 
Dr. Chandler has been honored by election 
to the National Academy of Sciences, and 
given the Charles Reed Barnes Life Mem- 
bership in the American Society of Plant 
Physiologists. Dr. Chandler will speak on 
the "Training of Young Trees." 

One of the significant panels of the 
Conference will be that on City Planning, 
"Consider the Trees," which will be con- 
ducted by Walter L. Doty, Director of 
Editorial Research, Sunset Magazine, 
Menlo Park, California. One of the out- 
of-state members of his panel will be Noel 
B. Wysong. Mr. Wysong, after having 
served seven years in the Department of 
Forestry, National Park Service, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, became affiliated with 
the Forest Preserve District in March, 
1939. He is active in many professional 
groups, and has served as president of 
the National Shade Tree Conference, the 
Midwestern Chapter of NSTC, and the 
Midwest Institute of Park Executives. He 
is also member of the American Associa- 
tion of Economic Entomologists, the Il- 
linois Technical Forestry Association, and 
the American Phytopathological Society. 

Ralph D. Cornell, a second participant 
in Walter Doty's panel on city planning, 
and long-time member of the National 
Shade Tree Conference, is the author of 
the unique work, "Conspicuous California 

peri'od of yc^rs^to c!//J/^;X/!4;7 °6 X/-/'- 
ttcHn-e. A w.i. Co!cle,i Gardens, and other 
horticultural publications. Mr. Cornell is 
a trustee and sustaining member of the 
Los Anucles State and County Arboretum 
Foundation, and is also on the Board of 
Governors. Among his outstanding land- 




scaping within the city of Los Alamos. 
The grounds of many public buildings in 



SUMMER 1955 



55 



the Civic Center of Los Angeles have been 
landscaped by Mr. Cornell, among them 
the Los Angeles County Law Library, and 
Los Angeles County Courts Building. 
Master plans for Griffith Park and Elysian 
Park have also come from the office of 
Mr. Cornell. 

Mr. Robert Royston, another outstand- 
ing California landscape architect, will 
also work with Mr. Doty on the City 
Planning panel. Formerly holding pro- 
fessorships with the University of Califor- 
nia and North Carolina State College in 
Landscape Architecture and design, Mr. 
Royston is now with the firm of Eckbo, 
Royston, and Williams, Landscape Archi- 
tects. The work of his firm is known na- 
tionally and internationally; San Francisco 

projects on which the firm has been con- 
sulted. It is also well-known for the re- 
Standard Oil Company in Richmond, 
California, and the St. Mary's Square 
Park, just completed. Eckbo, Royston and 
Williams are klso designers of the land- 
s^capc of the new Civic Center of Whittier, 

Among the valuable features of any an- 
nual meeting of the National Shade Tree 
Conference, are the educational exhibits. 
There will be featured under the direction 
of Lynn M. F. Harriss, Chairman of the 
Educational Exhibits Committee, exhibits 
depicting the care of existing trees. Two 
exhibits devoted to producing better trees 
for various purposes will include a display 
by the Association of Landscape Architects 
on the "Use of Living Trees in Appropri- 
ate Sites." A display of the native trees 
growing in the Western States will be 
sponsored by the Save-the-Redwoods 
League. The Santa Barbara Park Depart- 
ment in cooperation with the Santa Bar- 
bara Botanic Gardens, will set up an ex- 
hibit of trees introduced in the West, and 
an exhibit emphasizing climate control 
fhrough the use of trees and other plants 
's being planned by the Department of 
Landscape Management of the University 
of California at Davis. 

For the ladies, a series of interesting, 
but not exhausting, activities has been 



programmed by Mrs. Elizabeth Harris and 

working closely with the Transportation 
and Hospitality Committees so that all of 

bands to this conference will find their 
time profitably and pleasantly filled. 

These are but a few highlights of a 
conference that will be of immense inter- 
ornamental shade tree program. Subjects 
encompassed by such a program are very 

of the National Shade Tree Conferciu'c 

Climatology and ecology, arboriculture 
as an industry, streetside trees, a utility 

boretums, ethics of arborists, municipal 

agenda for this conference. 

In addition there will be educational 
exhibits, commercial exhibits, demonstra- 
tions of commercial equipment, and safety 
demonstrations that will be of major 
interest to all the delegates. 

A most cordial welcome is extended to 
all tree lovers whether as private garden 
owners, commercial gardeners, arborists, 
plantsmen, or scientists and teachers. Why 
not plan on attending one or more of the 
sessions in beautiful Santa Barbara, Cali- 
fornia, August 1-5, 1955, at the Mar 
Monte Hotel.? 



CALENDAR SOLICITATION 




Usca Leaves. ^ ianuiry 1st, April 1st,' July 1st, 
and October 1st. Press dates (when typed copy 




of copy fur public.ition. Send to: Plant So- 
cieties' Editor. Box 688, California Arboretum 



LASCA LEAVES 



VEITCH'S NURSERY 
Pioneer Hybridizers of Tuberous Begonias 



Elmer J. Lorenz 

Two more varieties named Begonia x tion, and of which the variety John Heal 
Mrs. Charles Scorer and B. roseo-superba was the first to be distributed." 
were distributed during 1880. Begonia x In 1882 the results of an experiment 
Mrs. Charles Scorer was produced by to produce dwarf compact plants for bed- 
crossing Begonia x Viscountess Doneraile ding or for pot culture was mentioned, 
with another seedling and described as "a Two varieties were listed for distribution 
splendid variety with large well-formed and were named Begonia x Miss Con- 
flowers of a brilliant glowing crimson- stance Veitch and Begonia x Mrs. Arthur 
scarlet, unequalled in this particular shade Potts. These successful crosses resulted 
of colour by any Begonia of its class. The from experiments with the dwarf Andean 
plant is of robust habit, free-flowering species, B. davisii. 

and vigorous, furnished with a neat dark John H. Veitch mentions "with the in- 
green foliage, which, together with bril- troduction of this dwarf race of Begonias 
liant flowers, render it one of the best Seden ceased experimenting. The hybrids 
Begonias yet obtained." produced had become widely distributed, 
The variety Begonia x roseo-superba re- and many hybridists, both in England and 
suited from a cross of B. row^or^x and an on the Continent, had engaged in the 
unnamed seedling. The flowers were de- work of improvement, and new varieties 
scribed as being of a "clear bright rose- appeared each year, but the eighteen hy- 

unique tint among Begonias." duced by Messrs. Veitch, form the foun- 

In Veitch's Plant Catalogue of 1881 are dation of Begonias of today." 

mentioned an additional two varieties Down through the years hybridizers 

named Begonia x Admiration and Begonia have worked on the tuberous begonias, 

X Viscountess Doneraile. Begonia x Ex- constantly changing and improving their 

celsior crossed with B. davisii resulted in form, color, and beauty, until they have 

the begonia plant named Begonia x Ad- reached the exceptional beauty of today, 

miration which showed the influence of The tuberous begonias can truly be called 

habit and v^vid orange-scarlet flowers^ are not only active in the United States, 

Begonia x Viscountess Doneraile is con- but in England and on the Continent as 

sidered one of John Seden's most brilliant well. The names of hybrid tuberous be- 

hybrids and was produced from crossing gonias are now legion. In "How to Grow 

two other hybrids, Begonia x Monarch Begonias" by G. A. Farini, printed about 

and Begonia x sedenii. 'The flowers, on 1899, there are fifty-nine pages of names 

green leaves, were freely produced, a^nd With the introduction of B. socotrana 
rich vermillion-red in colour." Hook. f. a new and important variety of 
"Hortus Veitchii" also notes that "an begonia hybrid emerged which was called 
important role played by this variety (Be- the "Winter Flowering Varieties," or as 
gonia X Viscountess Doneraile) was its now more commonly called "The Christ- 
use in connection with B. socotrana in the mas-Flowering Varieties." 
production of that entirely new and re- Professor Balfour, of the Edinburgh 
markable race of begonias which has be- Botanic Gardens is credited with introduc- 
come such a popular winter-flowering sec- ing this important Begonia. It was dis- 



SUMMER 1 95 5 57 




BEGONIA "ACME."'' 



LASCA LEAVES 



the following interesting remarks: "It is "The variety Success also rather tall- 
still largely grown (in 1906) as a winter- growing, bears numerous semi-double 
flowering decorative subject, the neat, flowers fully 2 in. in diameter, and in 
compact habit of growth, rich rosey-car- colour bright carmine toned with scarlet; 
mine flowers gracefully borne in terminal the petaloids are yellow tipped with green, 
panicles, and bright emeraid-grcen leaves, "The most distinct is the variety Ideala 
combine to make useful plant for the —unusually neat and compact, some 9 in. 
decoration of the table or conservatories." in height; the flowers large for so small a 

This was followed by crossing an subject, are semi-double, of a brilliant 

orange-flowered tuberous variety with Be- rose-colour, freely produced." 

gon/a X John Heal. This progeny was During the same year (1896) the pol- 

named Be go ma x Adonis and was noted len from B. socotrana was placed on the 

for its increased size of the flower, up to flower of a single scarlet-flowered variety, 

three inches in diameter. The color of the Three plants were selected for distribu- 

flower was described as being a bright tion from the resulting seed capsule and 

scarlet to red with carmine. It was first they were named Begonia x Mrs. Heal, 

distributed in 1887. Begonia x Myra, and Begonia x Winter 

Pollen from a very^dark crimson tuber- Cheer. Begonia x Mrs. Heal was con- 

of B. socotrana and the resulting plant ing flowers two to three inches in diam- 

was named Begonia x Winter Gem. It is eter and of a brilliant rose-carmine toned 

mentioned as being "in habit resembling with scarlet. The flowers were freely pro- 

Begonia socotrana, dwarfer and more duced and "gracefully disposed." 

compact, the leaves smaller and neater. The leaves of Begonia x Winter Cheer 

The flowers, darkest of all the group, are resembled those of B. socotrana and the 

rich deep crimson, 2 to 21/2 inches in semi-double flowers are of a pleasing 

well above the foliage." the third variety of the "^sct, produced 

Several varieties followed from a single single flowers of a bright rose-carminc. 



berous variety. The varieties were named tained. Two distinct varieties were selected 

Begonm x Ensign, Begonui x Winter Per- to be named Bei^onni x )ulius and Begonui 

fection. Begonia x Ideala and Begonia x x Sylvia. Bei^o>,ni x Julius is described as 

Success. These flowered for the first time being of "the most distinct of any in 

in 1891 and each differed from the other point of colour, a rose-pink suffused with 

in leaf, size, and color of the flowers. white, and flowers more truly double than 

"Ensign, exhibited for the first time in those of any other of the section." Be- 

November 1896, was the first of this gonia x Sylvia "has semi-double rosey- 

group to be distributed. The flowers are carmine flowers 3 in. in diameter, which 

semi-double, of a pleasing shade, of light open in a peculiar flat manner." 

rose-carmine, with the petaloid stamens Two other hybrids. Begonia x Agatha 

yellow or yellow-green, and the foliage and Begonia x Agatha compacta followed 

parents. ^ . , . , • , ^^^^^ ^' ^'^^^ ^ hybrid 

form, produces semi-double rosc--pink Moonlight, whith in turn was the result 

metamorphosed stamens remaining in var- dregei. Bcgon/a x Agatha "is not only a 

ious stages of development, the outer ones charming garden plant, but interesting, as 

rose-pink, and the inner more or less the flowers closely resemble those of 

streaked yellow. Gloire de Lorraine, a hybrid raised by M. 



SUMMER 1955 59 

Lemoine of Nancy from the supposed produced by Begonia x Agatha, but are of 

cross-fertilization of Begotiia socotrana a deeper shade of rose, and slightly larg- 

and Begonia Dregei." James Veitch er. The great distinction, however, lies in 
the compact habit, unusually dwarf and 
near, requiring no tying to make a shapely 

semblance between the two plants— plant, as in the case of Gloire de Lor- 

Agatha showing a slight difference in the raine." 

shape and colour of the leaves, as well as Contemporary begonia authorities have 

in a more compact growth, features prob- placed the begonia hybrids resulting from 

ably due to traces of Begotiia Peairei in the crossing of Andean tuberous species 

its composition." under the class of B. ti/herhybrida. The 

Begonia x Agatha compacta is a dwarf winter-flowering begonias resulting from 

form of Begonia x Agatha and resulted crossing B. socotrana and the Andean tu- 

irana and B. natalensh. ^Rlafa/ensis ha. placed in^the group of B. heimalis, and 
small white-flowered species from South the hybrid begonias resulting from the 



The followii 
by John Seder 
begonias, parci 



ice the 18 begonia hybrids 
ey were produced, name ( 



nd date of introdu. 




LASCA LEAVES 



Bego,;u! boliviensis A. DC. Card. Chron. 1867, p. 544, fig.; Bot. Mag., t. 5657; Fl. 

Mag. 1867, t. 354. 
Begonia (Jearcei Hook. f. Bot. Mag. t. 5545; Veit 



Bciroma roscwjhni Hook. f. Bot. May .t. 5680 ; Fl. and Pom. 1869, col. pi. p. 1. 
BegoHu, clansi! Vcitch. Hort. Vcitch ; Bot. Mag., t. 6252; Fl. Mag., t. 6252 ; Veitch's 

Catly. ot PI. 1H79; fit;.; The Garden, 1878, vol. xiii, p. 208, pi. 118. 
Begowa cLirkei Hook. f. Bot. Mag. t. 5663 et t. 5675 ; Veitch's Catlg. of PI. 1868, fig. 
Begonia auuabarnui Hook. f. Bot. Mag. t. 4483. 

Begonia x sedenii Hort. Veitch's Catlg. of PI. 1870, col. pi. and fig. p. 4; Fl. and 

Pom. 1869, p. 169, col. pi. 
Begonia x chelwni, Hort. Veitch s Catlg. of Pi. 1871, col. pi. and fig. p. 2. 
Begonia x intermedia Hort. Veitch's Catlg. of Pi. 1872, pi. 2, fig. ; Fl. Mag. Feb. 1872. 
Begonia x Stella and Begonia x Vesuvius. Veitch's Catlg. of PI. 1874, pp. 4, 5, figs. 
Begonia xExcelsioTSind Begonia X Model Yeitch': " ' — • — 

Begonia x Acme. Veitch's Catlg. of PI. 1876, p. 

pi. 118. 

Begonia x Kallista. Veitch's Catlg. of PI. 1876, p. 7, fig. 

Begonia x Emperor. The Garden, 1878, vol. xviii, p. 208, pi. 118; Fl. Mag. 1876, t. 
194. 

Begonia x Monarch. Veitch's Catlg. of PI. 1878, p. 8, fig. 

Begonia x Queen of the Whites. The Garden, 1878,' vol. xiii, p. 208, pi. exviii; 

Veitch's Catlg. of PI. 1878, p. 9, fig.; Gard. Chron. 1877, Dec. 15, col. pi. fig. 4. 
Begonia x Mrs.' Charles Scorer and Begonia x raseo-M,l>erha. Veitch's Catlg. of Pi. 



X -Winter Gem. The Garden, 1891, vol. xxxix, p. 504, col. pi. 807. 
X Ideala. Gard. Chron. 1901, vol. xxx, p. 411, fig. 124. 
X Mrs. Heal. Gard. Chron. 1895, vol. xviii, p. 585, fig. 101. 

viations used in the above list of references refer to the following: 
Bot. Mag. Curtis Botanical Magazine 

Fl. Mag. Floral Magazine 

Fl. and Pom. Florist and Pomologist 

Gard. Chron. The Gardeners' Chronicle (London) 

Veitch's Catlg. of PI. Veitch's Catalogue of New and Rare Plants 



BIRD NOTES 



SUMMER 1955 



George Groenewegen, described as "a 
gentleman who looks as if he had stepped 
out of a Rembrandt canvas," left a livmg 

University of California, Los Angeles. He 
joined the staff of the University in 1926 
to raise trees and shrubs for the new cam- 
pus in Westwood. It is reported that 
eighty thou5 ' 



GEORGE GROENEWEGEN 

March 3, 1876— February 6, 1955 



and pots 
responsibility in those 
- he large trees 



irly ye£ 



most of the 
pus were grown and tended by him. But 
Mr. Groenewegen was not satisfied with 
raising plants for the general landscaping 
and shortly he began planting a botanical 
garden in the arroyo which crossed the 
campus. Through the years this garden 
developed under his care to become a 
teaching and test garden unique in south- 
ern California. The students who walk its 
paths and study its plants are being 
trained in a tradition which began with 
the first botanical gardens and which has 
been maintained by such men as George 
Groenewegen. 

For George Groenewcgen's love and 

his grandfather!^the Hortulanus of Hortus 
Amsterdam. His father and brothers, 
reared in a world where plants were their 
"alphabet and daily bread," operated a 
nursery in Utrecht. Young George was 
sent to private schools, where at one time 
he was classmate of the late Peter Riedel,* 
but his knowledge of botany and horti- 
culture was learned at home and practiced 
as an apprentice gardener in Erfurt, Gcr- 

his first trip to this country accompanying 
One of many shipments of palms. The fol- 
lowing year he went to the Transvaal to 
obtain new palms and seeds. In 1907, 




for Coolidge Nursery in Pa.sadcna at S5() 
a month for two years. In 1916 he moved 
to the Raymond Hotel in Pasadena where 
he had charge of the plantings until he 

ment from the University in 1947 was a 
mere formality for he immediately joined 
the staff of the Los Angeles Country Club 
in July, 1947, as A.ssistant Propagator in 
charge of the conservatory. He cn|()\Ld 



LASCA LEAVES 



PLANT INTRODUCTIONS— THEIR VALUE TO US 

RUSSRLL J. SeIBERT 



One c:an scarcely speak ot plant in- dollars. Ut much more spectacular mter- 

out rcco^unizing the Ljrcat service rendered nomy is the very recent Soy Bean Indus- 

in this field by the U. S. Dept. of Agricul- try, which has resulted from a hand full 

ture. Plant Introduction Section in Belts- of soy bean seed collected by Dorsett in 

ville, Maryland. This ,ureat organization Korea in 1925. Today this crop alone 

was. until recently, known as the Division brings in one billion dollars a year to the 

of Plant Exploration and Introduction. American farmer. 

This same organization was first estab- To these may be added the Mango In- 

lishcd by the Federal Government in dustry of South Florida, The Avocado In- 

1S9H as a service of Foreign Seed and dustry of Florida and California, to name 

Plant Introduction. From this beginning a few which trace their introductions back 

there has been a detailed published in- to the famed P. I. Numbers, 

ventory of all plants introduced through So far have been mentioned only the 

tory No. 155 the total number of intro- tals from so many foreign lands The 
ductions had reached 161,666 as of 1947. Plant Introduction Section has contributed 
To date but still unpublished there are greatly to this field of introductions in 
over 22(),{)0() introductions. cooperation with arboreta, botanic gar- 
Included in these plant introductions dens and private cooperators. In the past 
are every type of food and economic crop it has distributed thousands of plants to 
grown in the United States. It is safe to private cooperators throughout the United 

economic crop grown in the United States in the commercial trade. 

today can trace its more recent improved In speaking of plant introductions into 

tions made by the Plant Introduction Sec- explorers as Dorsett, Swingle, Frank 
tion. The value of these plant introduc- Meyers, and David Fairchild, men who 
tion to the American farmer and to the devoted their lives to the introduction of 
American economy could be measured into new and better plants into the United 
the billions of dollars. States. It is fitting at this time to pay 
The Plant Introduction Section has con- tribute to one of the best known and most 
centrated its efforts on locating, through- publicized of these explorers, David Fair- 
out the world, varieties and strains of our child. Dr. Fairchild at the ripe age of 85 
agricultural crops which would furnish left this world which was his "Garden" 
the germ plasm for the constant improve- this past August 6th. He had been ill off 

established farm crops. It has also con- good this summer's morning and w ent out 

stantly been on the alert for potential eco- to his beloved home garden in the "K.un- 

nomic plants which might and in many pong ' in Coconut Grove, Flori 

cases have furnished new agricultural in .i'.:ain he was with the 

dustries for our farmers. Many examples ing there which he had 

of these new industries might be cited. his travels through the 

One of intere,st to us in California is the must have desired, he 

Date Industry which was completely estab- livin;: evidence of his i 

lished by means of commercial date varie- ies 

introduced by the Department from lea^ 



SUMMER 1955 



Foreign plants were first introduced into 
Southern California along with the mis- 
sions. Our Mission Fathers and the sea 
captains who visited our first ports brought 



irundo, the pepper tree, tl 
the oleander, the grains, 



ney were not our natives. We need 
3 be reminded of the e 
Mexican Fan palm to re 



>d"aS- 



ult 1 c s of Southern Califori 
view the thousands of plants, it is difficult 
save for the oaks, sycamores and Cali- 
fornia fan palm to pick out at a glance 
anything which is not exotic or intro- 
duced. I think that the realization of this 
fact more than anything else can point out 

We now come to the roll of arboreta 
and botanic gardens and their part in 
s, which goes back many 
pe and into the seven- 
re in the United States. 



icticed the feeling that 
.er the next hill. 
With this exception — he has not only 
gone to that "grass" but has brought it 
back home as well. 

The botanist and the horticulturist as- 
sociated with arboreta and botanic gardens 
have not as a rule restricted themselves to 
any thought that the plant they brought 
back must be economic. They have al- 
ved for the plants that were dif- 
• that might bring more beauty to 
their surroundings. They have seldom 
thought of thes ornamental prizes in a 
light of monetary value. That phase has 
been left to the commercial grower, the 
nurseryman and the florist. 

Arboreta and botanic gardens then con- 
stitute the major means by which our or- 
namentals have come to the United States 



ferent ( 



and from whence they have filtered into 
our gardens, parks and street sides. Here 
is where you look to find that different 

earthly use other than to beautify or to 
furnish another subject on which to place 
a label bearing an unpronounceable name. 
A name which at best might seem useless 
to remember because before too long some 
botanist will change it anyway! Yet it is 

will recognize one of beauty and place — 



larly well publicized and successful m thi 
respect. Sargent in the early days and 
E. H. Wilson more recently brought back 
to Boston thousands of new plants, hun- 
dreds of which have found their place 

the United States. 



turally. 

Millions of dollars worth of cut flowers 
and nursery stock are grown here every 
year. That income is derived from intro- 
duced trees and plants. With every new 
tree that is introduced the arborist has 

Those of us here today are in one way 
or another concerned with trees and other 
plants. Our livelihood centers around 
them and it is our obligation to find and 
make the best use of them possible. We 



ductions will make this the beauty spot i 

could and should be. 

Delivered at 

Shade Tree Conference 

Nov. 13, 1954. 



SUMMER 1955 



66 



LASCA LEAVES 



MANFRED MEYBERG AWARD 

Manfri-d Mevberg, general chairman of that he will continue as general 
the California International Flower Show, of the Flower Show for years to 

Tuesday, May 24, in the Sunset Room at 
the California Club. Members of the 
Flower Show Executive Committee, lead- 
ing exhibitors at the 1955 show, and busi- 
ness associates of Mr. Meyberg's gathered 

and^ unselfish giving of^time and effort 
to this great civic event. 

A plaque was presented to Mr. Mey- 

presentation made by Roy F. Wilcox, 
chairman of the Flower Show in its first 
four years, and permanent honorary chair- 

The plaque expresses the appreciation 
of the executive committee to Meyberg for 
"the wonderful presentation of the red- 
wood forest exhibit by Germain's, Inc., 
which was unselfishly withdrawn from 
Flower Show competition." The commit- 
tee, in the plaque, also express to Mr. 
Meyberg their gratitude for "his outstand- 
ing leadership and guidance, as well as his 
unselfish devotion to the show." It con- 
cludes with the wish by the committee 



MORE TABEBUIAS AT THE ARBORETUM 

RUSSHLL J. SEIBi:RT 

ts of Usca Leaves will recall our cession 53-S-158(). Seeds were 

Df the flowering of Tabebuia urn- from the Rio de Janeiro Botanic 

[Vol. 4:77. 1954 I . This species through Dr. Samuel Ayres, Jr. 

d again this spring of 1955 and has flowered at the end of March, 

ncellent growth as well as surviving yellow with individual flowers 2 



^Id si'tu^tionl 



•o other 'l'jh,hnij jrvlLuiedcie Lor. 

pjiiloius. Toledo in i 
Paulo, 1952. Thij 



old seedlin>rs been Klcntificd by Dr. N. Y. Sa 

c of ■rbc[>!jl>by!Li and is a' 
uL'h Mulford B. Foster of 



LASCA LEAVES 



GROWING NOTES 

George H. Spalding 




M//sa ensele, the Abyssinian Banana, is 

used to good advantage in Southern Cali- 
fornia, particularly along the coast. It has 
survived some pretty cold weather in Ar- 
cadia. Two plants of gallon can size were 
planted out in August 1949. The soil 
where they were planted is black and 

flourished and were well established by 
winter. The cold spell of 1949-50 is too 
vivid a memory for Southern Californians 
to need further comment. The bananas 
were frozen, of course, but had reached 
enough size so the heart was protected and 
in the spring new growth emerged. Again 
in 1950-51 the winter was cold and the 

The picture of the two plants shows their 
size in the summer of 1954 when they 
bloomed and set seed. The plant dies after 
seeding and since it does not send out 



suckers must be discarded and new plants 
started from seed. It takes five years or 
more for this banana to mature to fruiting 
stage. It is not a plant for the small back- 
yard, but where it can be used it is very 
effective for tropical accent. 

The flower is shown in the accompany- 
ing picture. Close examination will show 
the "hands" of small bananas at the base 
of each "petal." One or two "petals" 
open each day, covering the previous day's 
fruit so that the flowers must be pollenated 
the day they appear or the fruit will not 
develop. The bees are very active around 
the plants, and quantities of seed are usu- 
ally set. The flowering stem continues to 
elongate until it reaches a length of six 

In the mountains of Abyssinia where 
this banana is native, it grows to a height 
of 30'-40'. In California it seldom ex- 
ceeds 1 5'-20'. It is the largest and prob- 
ably the most widely cultivated of this 
group. It is also one of the oldest known 
as it was used in the sculptures of the 
ancient Egyptians. 

Mhcanthus sinensis 

The Susuki Grass is one of the most be- 
loved plants of Japan. It is planted along 
the banks of rice paddies and used in 
flower arrangements to symbolize the fall 
season. A very adaptable plant, it will 

dry and does not seem to be at all particu- 
lar as to the soil. It will reach a height of 
4'-6'. There is a sizeable planting in the 
yard on the southwest corner of Alpine 
and Los Robles in Pasadena. 

Miscanthus sinensis resembles Pampas 
Grass and is known in the American trade 
as Eulalia. It is easily grown from seed, 
which germinates in about 10 days. Since 
it is deciduous the old dead stalks should 
be removed each year. Use it as a bold 
accent group. 

Beaucarnea gracilis 

The Beaucarneas are sometimes placed 
in the genus Knlina but since Beaucarnea 



70 



LASCA LEAVES 



LONGWOOD'S GAIN— OUR LOSS 



On may 19, 1955, a newspaper release 
from Longwood Foundation, Inc., du 
Pont Building, Wilmington, Delaware, 
broke the news officially of the accepted 
appointment of Dr. Russell J. Seibert as 
director of Longwood Gardens. The an- 
nouncement was made by Henry B. du 
Pont, president of the Longwood Founda- 
tion which operates the Gardens estab- 
lished by the late Pierre S. du Pont. Since 
many readers of Lasca Leaves are probably 
little aware of some of the significant 
background of the retiring Director of 
Los Angeles State and County Arboretum, 
and thereby Editor-in-Chief of Lasca 
Leaves, we take this opportunity of ac- 
quainting you with Dr. Russell J. Seibert 

"Dr. Seibert, who is forty years old, has 
a distinguished record in the botanical and 
horticultural fields. Since June, 1950, he 
has been engaged in the establishment of 
the Los Angeles State and County Ar- 
boretum at Arcadia, Calif., a project in- 
volving restoration of the historic Rancho 

'''"Aiive of Belleville, 111., Dr. Seibert 
was educated at Washington University, 
St. Louis, receiving his A.B. degree there 
in 1937 and his M.S. in 1938, his gradu- 

with the Missouri Botanical Garden. In 
1938-39, he was an Exchange Fellow at 
the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard Uni- 
versity. He received his Ph.D. degree at 
Washington University in 1947. 

"Before going to California, Dr. Seibert 
was for a number of years a Department 
of Agriculture expert whose work took 
him on extended expeditions to various 
parts of Latin America. As a botanist, he 

ties in Central and South America, and, 
with supplies of Malayan rubber threat- 
ened by international tensions early in 
1941, he was in charge of opening a 
Rubber Station at Marfranc, Haiti, propa- 
gating plant material with a view toward 
establishing a source of rubber in the 
Western Hemisphere. 



"From 1943 to 1946, Dr. Seibert was 
stationed in Peru, carrying on a program 
of study and collection of rubber trees in 

ing regions of Brazil. At the completion 
of this assignment, he returned to college 
for completion of his work toward a Ph.D. 
degree. 

"Rejoining the Department of Agri- 
culture, Dr. Seibert was associated for the 
next two years with the Rubber Station at 
Turrialba, Costa Rica, continuing his work 
with natural rubber trees and extending his 
interest in other crops, including the in- 

into Costa Rica for lumber and nut pro- 
duction. At the close of this tour of duty, 
he was stationed at Beltsville, Md., for 

group. 

"Dr. Seibert is a vice president of the 
American Horticultural Society and chair- 
man of the Arboreta and Botanic Garden 
Committee, National Shade Tree Confer- 
ence, Western Section. He is a member 
of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, the American So- . 
ciety of Plant Taxonomists, tlic American 
Association of Botanical Gardens and Ar- 

ences and the Southern 'cialVfornia Acade- 
my of Sciences, and the Southern Califor-^ 
nia Horticultural Institute. He is the au- 
thor of numerous publications. 

"Mrs^ Seibert, the former Miss^ Isabella 

background in the botanical field herself. 
She is the daughter of G. H. Pring, super- 
intendent of the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, famous for his work on orchids and 
tropical water lilies. The Seiberts were 
married in 1942. They have three ihil- 

2." 

Those of us who have worked under 
the wise, kindly, and often inspired ,uu.d- 
ancc and direction of Dr. Seibert .an say 
little more than a deeply heartfelt regret 
at his leaving us, coupled with the licart- 
iest wishes for his progressive success m 
the new post. 



SUMMER 1955 



Dr. Russell 



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



William Beresford Percy C. Everett 

Manchester Boddy Earle E. Humphries 

Howard Bodger Mildred E. Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Alfred W. Roberts 

Ralph D. Cornell Ronald B. Townsene 

Richard Westcott 



Samuel Ayres, Jr. 
Robert Casamajor 
Henry R. Davis 
Hugh Evans 



Murray C. McNeil 
Manfred Meyberg 
LovELL Swisher, Jr. 
Roy F. Wilcox 



Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) . . . 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 



Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 

Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month, Plummer Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 



Box 688— Arcadia— California 
Telephone DOuglas 7-3444 




EDvtAjiD Huntsman-Trout. 



. Landscape Architect^ 



CALIFORNIA ARBORETUM FOUNDATION, INC. 



Board of Trustees 

Acting-President Ralph C. Cornell 

Vice-President Ralph C. Cornell 

Vice-President Mrs. John R. Mage 

Treasurer Howard A. Miller 

Secretary George H. Spalding 

Samuel Ayres, Jr. Charles S. Jones 

Mrs. Harry J. Bauer John C. Macfarland 

Robert Casamajor Samuel Mosher 

Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin Stuart O'Melveny 

John Anson Ford Mrs. Rudolph J. Richards 

J. D. Funk Harold F. Roach 

William Hertrich Mrs. William D. Shearer 

Lionel Louis Hoffmann Henry C. Soto 

Henry Ishida Frank Titus 

Honorary Trustees 
Ronald B. Townsend Mrs. J. J. Gallagher 

Manfred Myberg 

Executive-Secretary Mrs. Lee Wray Turner 

Telephone DOuglas 7-8207 
Memberships 

Annual Associate Membership $ 5.00 

Annual Membership 10.00 

Annual Contributing Membership 25.00 

Annual Sustaining Membership 100.00 

Annual Sponsor Membership 250.00 

Life Membership 500.00 

Benefactors i 5,000 or more 

All contributions deductible under Federal Income Tax Law. 



8 — Arcadia — Californi 



AUTUMN 1955 

Lasca Leaves 

Quarterly publication of the Southern California Horticultural Institute and 
the California Arboretum Foundation, Inc. Issued on the first of 



Robert Casamajor Mildred Mathias 

Philip Edward Chandler Philip A. Munz 

William Hertrich Louis B. Martin 

William S. Stewart, ex-offiao 



Arboretums and Botanical Gardens: 

Northern California — Elizabeth McClintock 

Santa Barbara— Katiierine K. Muller 

Southern California— J. Howard Asper 

Economic Plants Louis B. Martin 

Geo-botany, and Plant Patents Louis C. Wheeler 

Historical Mrs. Richard Y. Dakin 

Horticulture Vernon T. Stoutemyer 

Landscape Design Ralph D. Cornell 

Native California Flora Percy C Everett 

Orchids Robert Casamajor 

Ornithological W. Dan Quattlebaum 

Plant Material Mildred Davis, Philip Edward Chandler 

Plant Pathology Pierre Miller 

Plant Societies George H. Spalding 

Propagation W. QuiNN Buck 



.Scott E. Ha 

of Exotics. 



.Philip A. Munz 



OCTOBER, 1955 



CONTENTS 

"Les trois arbres", Etching by Rembrandt (1643) 

Landscape Architect in a Tree Garden. . .Edward Huntsman-Trou 
Plant Introductions— 1954 (concl.) .... Philip Edward Chandle; 

The Eucalyptus in Australia F. W. Weni 

New Director at the Arboretum 

Persea Species in California C. A. Schroedei 

Tree Ferns in Southern California Alfred W. Robert; 



The Contributions of L. H. 

Cultivated Plants 

Fu-us Planting in Downtow, 

Growing Notes 



LASCA LEAVES 



AUTUMN 1955 



LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT IN A TREE GARDEN 




came botany. Trees rendered their quota 5°"!f '''^^fy^ there are those wh, 

of leaf and flower to be named and dassi- ' ^'^^ rees They curse the Poplar les 

fied, to be spread to dry in the paper press, '^^ /^^^^^ the sewer They forbid th 

and to be mounted and labelled for the Rubber tree lest its swellmg butt break u] 



dewalk and curb. They 
;st the Gum fall and crush the house. I 
ke better the fair householder who said 
■ith a sigh. "Trees and husbands! Both 
My fi;;r,"ob wTs' wi;h a"nu7se7y7p^^^^^^ ""^''y^ "''^^ ^^''^ 



Hortus Siccus. With travel came the ex- 
citement of discovery, trees new and 
strange from far away, the Bald Cypress, 
the Norfolk Island Pine, the Royal Pal 



the seeds, shifting seedlings from seed flat „ r r i r 
to thumb pot to nursery row, where sap- ^rees are a crop^f fruit, of bark, o 
lings grew tall and straight, ready for ^JP' o t.mber. Trees are the mantle of 
aspiring maturity in orchafd ;nd ga^rden. the hills, nursing the underbrush and 
Before ever I thought of landscape archi- f .^^'['"^ ^^^^ ^?P^°'[- J' J' 
tecture, trees were my familiar friends. delight to humankind -shade from the 
^ sun and a shadow on the ground, flower- 
Trees are whatever you are and what- ing trees for the lover of flowers, treasure 
ever you will. Some tree gave Aeneas the house of line and form for the artist, a 
Golden Bough which was his 'open wall against the stormy wind, and fallen 
sesame' for the descent to Avernus. The leaves to be raked into piles by tidy gar- 
Druids worshipped the Oak, perhaps den-keepers. And whoever first said, "Go 
looking backward to an ancient arboreal climb a tree!", must have regretted most 



LASCA LEAVES 



spaced out and trimmed to frame the out- 
look over the countryside. Incidentally, 
people with view lots are often fearful 

With co-operation, trees will make the 



ist, trees are Taxonomy, Morphology, 
Oecology, Oeconomy, Pathology, Phytog- 
eny, all areas of dry and laborious erudi- 

trees nonethel^s^ ""^^'^ 

For the landscape architect, trees are all 
of that, because the householder, the 



take 



and synthesi 



Landscape 
lily, design 

mple word: 



the landscape architect 
t of doors. It may be said 
ive earth for floor, sky for 
'or walls, although all of 
A'ays true. The important 
vish to make is that the 

^iTis so thl'tTis^valued 



Massed trees make good 
specially if the space is ge 
lay also fz/rn/sh the floor v 



rpat- 



the high-branched spreading tree will join 
the sky to roof the garden over. The tree 
wall may be sol/c/ as with a towering 
hedge of clipped Pittosporum. It may also 



Singly 



. garden hall. They may justify a 
the road, dramatize and augment 



; divided- 



He 
land- 
scape, the site and all that is to be set on it 
for use and beauty, the works of the horti- 
culturist, the engineer, the architect, and 
must work with them to build an out-of- 
doors architecture which will serve them 
all. professional, amateur, and general 



interest principle of camouflage. With a 
good tall tree alongside, the powerpole is 
scarcely seen, while a too solid screen may 
advertise what it is designed to hide. 

At Santa Anita, screening is about the 
first thing which the landscape architect 
wants to see done, around all the borders. 
Without oflPence to our good neighbors 
in the adjoining housing tracts and the 

particularly for the sake of the historic 
grounds which once were the heart of the 
thousands of acres of Rancho Santa Anita. 
With forethought, time and care, plan- 
tations of trees will do this. 

If the garden be well and truly built, 
when you come you will not be conscious 
that its trees are doing duty as walls, 
screens^ and so on. But they must do these 

And so, the garden will be 'commod- 
ious, serving comfortably and well the 
purpose for which it was built. For the 
Arboretum, this "commodity" means too 
that there is place to grow all possible 
trees for research and study, for trial and 
display, and made available for the en- 
lightenment and entertainment of the 
public. Hence, while some of its trees are 
for garden structure, others and probably 
the most of them will be "objects in 
space", furniture and decoration, to be 



the old-fashioned word 



AUTUMN 1955 



77 



for sound work. When we plant trees 
make a wall, or a gate, or for any otl 
structural purpose, they must have qu; 

pose. They must be right and fit as to s 

branch and foliage. They must be reasc 
ably long-lived, and amenable to our sc 

have no end of experimental plantings 
trees, but experiments will not be l 



'ue of St)Je^rtl'es a^ individuals! Eal^ 
jnique. They will be chosen and grow 
as to develop and display S/yle as ind 
luals, as the best of their kind, suprem( 



:^here is also the Style which derives from 

leighbor, and trees in groups and masses, 
/here they rfiay be unified by rhythmic 



Contemporary architecture has made a 

much profit to architectural thinking. Ob- 
viously, if one takes the trouble to make 
anything, it should be well-made, and it 
should work well. The functionalist goes 
farther, to insist that the finished work 
plainly show its "bones", an ideal which 
exhibited in the traditional Japanese 



are an important part of th 
beauty of the house. The s; 

den design. Other than that, 
of styles, whether Contempor; 

seems trivial in the presence o 
quality and dignity of the tree. 

Analogies to any style may be looked 
for and found in a tree — the stately 
classic of the Orange and the Laurel Bay, 
the Gothic of an avenue of old Elms, the 
Chinese Picturesque of the Deodar Cedar, 



ully 
mT^sorTof 



dyn 



Contemporary free-form < 
iTnn Oak^ However,^"that oie la 
lid, add Is not^to be'had^hrough' 



rangements, which are often m 
in the breach than in the observ 

desert. Sensitive landscape des 



apprecia 



w. — The Arboretum is not ex- 
) be planted to trees. However, 
im is, by definition, a garden of 
that reason, and because our 
Zalifornia climate is such that 
lant most vital to our 



nfortable 



) Huntsman-Trout 



PLANT INTRODUCTIONS FOR 1954 



r iiecora came into this 
"s r'X/L but with 
TltlmHinrthc hi 
ng spaced closer toi 



78 



LASCA LEAVES 



THE EUCALYPTUS IN AUSTRALIA 



For several months I have been trav- trees three quarters of all trees in Aus- 
eling through Australia, a continent as tralia are Eucalyptus. There is no other 
large as the Continental United States, part in the world of equal size which is 
with a total area of 3,000,000 square so exclusively populated by trees of a 
miles. This is roughly the same area as is single genus. Conifers are the only corn- 
covered with coniferous forests over the parable group, but there we are dealing 
whole world. In spite of its great differ- with many different genera in several 
ences in terrain, soil and climate, there families. 

is one feature which is universal in Aus- Although before arriving in Australia 
tralia: the Eucalyptus. It occurs in moist I had known about the importance of 
areas with over 50 inches of rainfall, but Eucalyptus, yet I was struck by its unl- 
it also is found in semi-deserts with 10 versality. For in California we know 
inches of rain. It grows from sea-level to hardly more than a dozen species, and 
timberline on the Australian Alps, culmi- these seem to be overshadowed by Euca- 
nating in Mount Kosziusko, from the lyptus globulus, which is a species of mi- 
tropics at 10° SL in Northern Australia nor importance in Australia. I saw it 
to the Southernmost part of Tasmania, at growing in Tasmania, as just one of a 
42° SL. On soils with a hard-pan it forms dozen of species, most of which seemed 
shrub-thickets, but on deep rich soils in more vigorous. Of all the really beautiful 

ests of 300 ft. height. It grows in near- the Eucalypfus iiniinal'is is popular m 

heavy clay. It forms excellent timber or regnaus. the most majestic of all I saw, or 

can be used for paper fabrication; it is a the rapidly regenerating E. gigduttj. or 

source of oil, and has a hundred other the beautiful E. goHiocalyx. or the highly 

uses. It seems as if all the other tn cs ot fr t t t / / / / r tr 

tuf. It is really amazing how the species^if of Eucalyptus into Cahfornia in the be- 

a single genus have so completely filled ginning of the century. The Los Angeles 

the very diverse ecological niches or re- State and County Arboretum has started 

quircments of a whole continent, at the a very active program of introductioi 

virtual exclusion of other trees. Although other Eucalyptus species, and with 

Australia is geographically isolated from active cooperation of many foresters 

most of the rest of the world, restricting scientists in Australia, and the vigo 

the exchange of plants from other areas, efforts in Arcadia, we can look for\ 

enough trees of other families have in- to a new era of success of Eucalyptu: 

vaded Australia to have furnished ma- troduction in California. 



era have penetrated from New Guinea here in Australia we seldom find a forest 
the Asian tropics, and in the South in which only a single species of Eucalyp- 
Beech (Nothofagus) forms forests. tus grows by itself. With the exception of 



t competition of the; 



80 



LASCA LEAVES 



have seen, the Mountain Ash (E. regnans) 
in Victoria, in the Dividing Range 40 

protected as a watershed since it covers 
the areas from which Melbourne receives 

about 40-50 inches per year, with another 
8 inches produced by fog-drip when 

nately most of the E. regnans forests 
have been destroyed by fire or by man. 
But where it still stands untouched it is 
of an undescribable grandeur, the slender 
trunks without branches for the lower 150 
feet, reaching straight up pale yellow or 
greenish towards its own light olive 
leaves. At their base most trees are 6-10 ft. 
wide, and their height varies between 260 
and 300 feet. They dwarf stately tree 
ferns in the undergrowth. A curious sight 
is the number of broken branches which 
have plummeted down like darts, and 
stand upright in the ground under the 
trees. In between lie the long strips of 
bark which peel off like in our California 
Eucalyptus. 

In looking up against these most grace- 
ful of all trees, one wonders what has 
made them grow so tall. One compares 
them of course with the California Red- 
woods which grow slightly taller, and 
with the Sierran Sugar pines, or the mag- 
nificent conifers in the Alpes Maritimes in 
Southern France. It is curious that no- 
where in the tropics are there forests 
which can compare in si2e with the for- 
ests just mentioned, which all lie well out- 
side the tropics, at about 40° N or S of the 
equator. And comparing the climates with 
each other, we find that all of them: Vic- 
toria, California and Southern France have 
winter rainfall and summer drought. Dur- 
ing the drier months the forests all seem 
to be frequently surrounded by fog, which 
can be condensed by their needles or 

precipitation, and in none of the localities 
the soil becomes really very dry. But the 
air is, especially during day in summer, 
very dty. This is surprising, because one 
might well suppose that in such tall trees 
the water supply would be a limiting fac- 



tor in their growth. But we have seen 
already that in really moist tropical coun- 
tries trees do not grow so tall. Therefore 

Which other factor might become lim- 
iting in a tall tree.> That is the transloca- 
tion of food from the leaves to the root 
systems and to the growing cells of the 

with tomato plants I found that the cooler 
the temperature, the better the sugar 
formed in the leaves was transported to 
other parts of the plant and the better it 
could grow. On the other hand the tem- 
perature during day had to be fairly high 
to obtain the highest rate of photosynthe- 
sis. When we compare now again the cli- 
mates where the tallest trees grow, then 
we find that they are the summer drought 

they have big temperature differences be- 
tween day and night. The drier the cli- 
mate, the bigger this diurnal temperature 

the dryness of the summer, which makes 

seen that the water at the disposal of their 
roots is always sufficient), but the warm 
days which produce lots of sugar in the 
leaves and the cool nights which are opti- 
mal for the removal of these sugars to the 

mates we may get very large trees, but 
their size is not so much tallness but rath- 

{Agathis cm sir alls') in the forests of Nor- 
thern New Zealand which reach a di- 
ameter of 30 feet, but are not over 200 
feet high. The climate there is much wet- 
ter throughout the year and the big tem- 
perature differential of the summer 
drought areas does not occur there. 

The tallest Eucalyptus trees arc found 
in South-Westcren Australia, again in an 




but does not go much above 200 feet. 



AUTUMN 1955 



NEW DIRECTOR AT THE ARBORETUM 




AUTUMN 1955 



83 



PERSEA SPECIES IN CALIFORNIA 

C. A. SCHROKDER 
Department of Subtropical Horticulture University of California, L 
The urgent need for new Persea spe- Another species is Perst 
cies or botanical relatives as rootstocks swamp -bay of the Gulf stut 

duce higher yields and develop relatively Florida, Georgia, Alabama 

smaller avocado trees has been responsible The plant attains the size ( 

for the introduction of Persea species and shrub or small tree with p 

relatives from Mexico, Central America, lanceolate leaves. In Flon 



sity of 



parts of the world by the Uni- 
California. The Department of 
.1 Horticulture on the Los An- 



collection of all forms and near botanical form and are inedible. The swamp-bay 

relatives of the common avocado, Persea may have some value as a lanclscape speci- 

cw^em-am,. more than twenty years^ ago, j""^^" j'^''^'^ *^.Pj^"p^^ ^"^1^^^^^ 

beli°'pLsTbIe'"to*^efflitivd^^ V^^sue the erance to water-saturated soils are desired, 

program on an extensive scale by personal At least one introduction of this species 

exploration and by the aid of competent was made by the University about 1946 
collectors in the field. While many forms The coyo or chmmni Persea schiede- 

and species have failed to become estab- am. native of Southern Mexico and Gua- 

lished because of difficulties in transporta- temala, was introduced into California 

tion, failure of seed to germinate, in- about 1940. This spec.es has been founc^ 

compatibility with available rootstock ma- very sensitive to frost and probab y will 

terials and other causes, several species grow only in the warmer areas ot Cali- 

have been successfully established in Cali- fornia. In its native habitat the tree at- 

fornia and have become available for use tains a height ot fifty to sixty or more tcct 

in horticultural research. Some of these with a trunk diameter of two to tour tcct. 

c^untoCemlcp^^^^^^^ J^Hs'lo^^^^^ 

longTe^n 'ttnfzt^'in ^Callfomif as^'an uncTi£l'o"bserver The leases commonly 

orntmentl plant is P. mdna. This hardy attain a length of one foot and a width 

species IS said to be endemic to certain of of four or five inches. The young branches 

the Canary Islands, where it forms the are thick and very heavily pubescent. Al- 

dominant forest species. Some of the larg- though the fruit generally is of infer.o 

er Tpecimens are ^reported to attain trunk quality compared with most avocado^ i 

diani^eters of over six feet. The larger is eaten in Mexico and Guatemala. The 

specimens in California are seldom more green fruit attains the size of a large 

than a foot in trunk diameter and attain Guatemalan type avocado contains a 

a height of fifteen to twenty feet. The large, rough, PO>nted seed and has a 

broadly lanceolate blue-green leaf and watery, stringy flesh This — 



habit of 1 
scape. The purple-bla^ 



yet flowered or fruited in Califorr 
soft pubescent nature of the larg 



large clusters, and are inedible. This spe- The dark, glossy green 
cie? has been here for at least 50 years. lon^,p-^es from Vera Cru: 
Its exact date of introduction is not make^th 



frost-free exposures. 

ra Cruz State in Mex 
California plant lov( 



LASCA LEAVES 



ight in habit, a rapid 



that it possesses a fair degree of hardiness young plants. 

to frost. The fruits are small and black, Several other species, including P. Don- 
not unlike a small Mexican seedling, with neU-Snihbii and P. skutcbii introduced by 
little flesh of inferior quality. Dr. G. A. Zentmyer, and many other bo- 



i— pre 

Mt. Uyuca, Honduras, was introduced in- genera Ocoteo and Nectandri 
to California in 1946. This species in its eral unidentified introducti 
native habitat is a very large tree 60 to 70 closely related to the avocado i 



bescence. The young unfolded leaves and ^-i" be determmed. It is likely Uiat at Ic i l 

Sther species of Persea. as well as the research workers. 

The wild avocado of Tecpan (Guate- PLANT INTRODUCTIONS FOR IWi 
mala), Persea nnbigena. was sent to Cali- (Continued from p. 77) 

193H. The leathery nature of the broadly of F. elastica: though theref as with so 

lanceolate leaves makes this plant less many plants, the warmer nights have not 

attractive to most people compared with brought out the red-bronze in the foliage, 

other species in the group. The few speci- one of the plant's most attractive character- 

mens observed in California have shown istics. The cold tolerance of this species 

• typi- is not yet kn 



nd russeted. 



Hebe menziesi is a little bush veronica 
ntly brought south from the San Fran- 
•egion. " 



including the of hebe have been gro^ 

" ■ " he opi 



nflorescence, have an aspect of 

.nd hardness which are not especially at- of the wriFer, this is the best of them all. 



Only 14"- 16" high and 20" across, this 
m introduction made in 1947 which elegant little shrub which looks well- 
received considerable attention bec^ause dressed at all times, spells the happy an- 
ally because of its precocity and heavy \nt vZxtl lo^^mlio^TJ^mX^^ Com- 
ds IS Persea floccosa. This species from pletely evergreen, with leaves right down 
mountainsides of Mt. Orizaba in Vera to the ground— tiny pointed triangles of 
Mexico, produces an abundance of leaves— H. ,>ienz}esi grows easily and well 
11, practically inedible, pynform fruit in almost any soil and any exposure that 
with corky, is not extremely hot or dry, a sprightly low 
1 large clus- mound of good gloss and fine texture, 
ters. It has been hybridized with the com- And in addition to all these attributes, the 
mon avocado. Observations on the pro- shrubs blooms profusely in spring and 
geny from these crosses are eagerly summer, short diagonal spikes of lacy 
awaited with the hope that the heavy white over the entire plant. No bugs, no 
bearing habit and precocity may be in- virus, has yet been observed on a single 
duced in the hybrids or their backcrosses. plant in any garden ; in no way is this 
The leaf of P. floccosa is somewhat nar- hebe a "prima donna." Its extremely 
rowly lanceolate in form, very leathery in small scale suggests its association with 
texture, and with considerable pubescence, things like Lotiicera nitida and Azara 



hard skin. The frui 



AUTUMN 1955 



TREE FERNS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 



Of the many tree ferns known, there 

been successfully grown out-of-doors in 
Southern California. No doubt this num- 

duced. Heading the list among the most 
popular tree ferns are Alsophila austral'/s 
and Dicksonia antarctka. These two spe- 
cies are preferred because of their ability 

Southern California's coastal zones. 

Alsophila australis and its robust cousin 
Alsophila excelsa {robusta) are found 
in almost every garden where emphasis is 
placed on tropical planting. These species 
grow very rapidly, forming trunks at the 

ering over other plants in an effort to 
reach ^faidy strong s^unlight.^Their grace- 

8 feet in length. (Trunks have reached 
more than 20 feet in Southern Califor- 
nia). A. excelsa grows faster and straight- 

of 40 to 60 feet in the tropical regions of 

Less known, but the hardiest of the 

tree fern will withstand temperatures as 
low as 20 degrees after its second year of 
growth. In its native Tasmania it must 
endure frost. This heavy-trunked fern is 
very exotic in appearance and a good 
plant will produce 30 to 40 fronds each 
year. The leaflets of this species reach 

Closely resembling D. a>itantica is 
Dicksonia fibrosa from New Zealand. Its 

green color on the under side. Because of 
its slower growth, this species is better 

The roots which add to the bulk of the 
trunk each year are criss-crossed. Dickson- 
ia fibrosa is often mistaken for D. atitarc- 

Also from New Zealand we have the 
lovely, narrow, black trunked Dicksonia 
scjuarrosa. The three- to four-foot fronds 



sume a horizontal position when mature, 
tremely hot, dry days of late fall. It does 

mon for young shoots to sprout from the 
trunk. Average height is eight feet. 
Hemitelia smithii is very similar to D. 

soft in texture and are even more subject 
to foliage burn during hot, dry weather. 
Recommended for cool, coastal canyons. 
Average height is eight feet. 

Alsophila armata. recently introduced 
from Mexico and South America, enjoys 
a cool, protected spot. Time will tell if 
this spine-leafed fern will accept our cli- 
matic conditions favorably. 

Cyathea medullaris is a rapid grower 
and is considered by some to be as hardy 
as A. australis. Its black-stemmed fronds 
have reached 12 feet in length. Plants in 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, have 
reached heights exceeding 24 feet with a 
20 foot spread, and some have trunks 16 
inches at the base. Its cousin, C. dealbata, 
or Silver Fern from the Northern and 
Middle Islands of New Zealand, is not 

their native habitat have produced trunks 
40 feet high, but most mature plants 
reach heights of 1 5 feet. They have a sil- 

shi'lkedTronds.'' ' ^ 




86 



LASCA LEAVES 




AUTUMN 1955 



87 



IDRIA COLUMNARIS 

William Hertrich 



One of the curious specimens of desert 

gative journey through the Desert Garden 
of the Huntington Botanical Gardens in 
San Marino, and which is represented not 

Lower Cahfornia, Idria columnaris. "Liv- 
ing telegraph pole" it has been aptly 
named by visitors to its native land who 

a maximum recorded seventy feet. Native 
Spanish folk have named it "Wax Can- 
dle" or Cirio in their picturesque lan- 
guage, and in botanical and horticultural 
literature it is unaccountably called also 
the Boojam Tree. 

the family Fouqmer'mceae. It has a lirnited 
habitat, that portion of Baja California 
extending from approximately the thir- 
tieth parallel southward for about one 
hundred miles, growing there in colonies 
or "forests", in one of the desert spots on 
the margin of the Bay of Sebastian Viz- 
caino, east of Cedros Island. The "desert" 

arid land of inland deserts, but it is likely 
to be relatively low in humidity with night 
dews and infrequent rains and a reason- 
ably high water table. The exceptionally 
limited confines of the habitat and the 
slow spread of the species may be ac- 
countable to some extent to the behavior 
of juvenile plants as compared with those 
that reach maturity. Young plants are 
vitally dependent upon at least occasional 
rains during the summer dry season. Ma- 
ture plants, on the other hand, enter a 
period of estivation in late summer and 

ter rains, a habit which juvenile plants do 
not acquire for several years. Consequent- 
ly, during those tender years, if there is 
comparative drought, or too late rains, 
young specimens are fatally affected. 
Younger plants are usually pyramidal in 
shape, broader than high (see cut). 

Once the plant is well established it has 
immense capacity for survival. Occasion- 
ally isolated specimens have made news 



for example, was found atop a huge boul- 
der on Catavina Mesa— a seedling that 
had sent down its roots through a rock 
crevice to a depth of some thirty feet to 
the necessary soil and water beneath. 
Carefully measured by a curious and 
methodical plant hunter, over a period of 
thirteen years it was found to have grown 
six inches. Normally plants grow to 
heights of forty feet or more with a two- 
foot base, tapering upward to a relatively 
slim terminal. The branches are little more 
than twigs in relation to the trunk; they 
measure about two feet long at the base of 
the plant, shortening to a mere few inches 
near the top. The accompanying photo- 
graphs show specimens both with and 
without leafy foliage, the latter condition 
a protective one during the dry season. 
The leafing out occurs again once the rains 
some and adequate moisture becomes 
available. The trunk itself is spongy in- 
side, suitable for storing the moisture so 
necessary to its survival. Some trunks have 
been found to be fairly hollow, and it is 
recorded that bees introduced into Lower 

purposes, have thrived by occupying Cirio 

Flowers of Uria cob art m II 

three- petalled, ivory-white to pale green 
blossoms appearing chiefly near the termi- 

familiar OcotiUo plants of California 
deserts. Comparatively rare under cultiva- 
tion, plants of various ages are observable 
in the Huntington Gardens, and plantings 
of them are reported to thrive in Vaca- 
ville, California, about 1000 miles north 
of the native habitat. Plants in the Hunt- 
ington Gardens are either specimens col- 
lected and transplanted here, or plants 
grown from seed (very thin, papery, trans- 
parent) from the largest and oldest in 
the Gardens. The latter, somewhat over 
twenty years ago was about twenty feet 
tall—said to have been the finest public 

forty-feet and in excellent condition. 



88 LASCA LEAVES 

THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF L. H. BAILEY 
TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF CULTIVATED PLANTS 



AUTUMN 1955 



89 



As £ 



gre^ 



k-tomato, seeds 
of which had been sent him by Morong. 
He tried it in the house and out-doors 
without getting any fruit. But the third 
attempt, also out-of-doors, resulted in 
seed^. He noted p|iysiojogical djff^rcj^ccs 



types 



or described, I have not yet succeeded 
in fixing one." In other words, Bailey 
amassed a vast experience from garden 
work. For many years it was his practice 
to go through seed catalogues, foreign 
and domestic, and order seeds of newly 
named varieties and forms. These he 
grew at Ithaca, later to make herbar- 



urn mar! 



Derience in garden and field and the ac- 

sms gave him ^he feeling that they 
liffered among themselves physiologically 
ally as well as morphologically 



ofte< 



the 



diffei 



These fruits matured and the seeds from 
them were sown in 1890. Some 200 
plants were grown" ... "A dozen fruits 
were selected from various parts of this 
patch, and in 1891 about 2500 plants 



nces that were important rather than the 
alter. Thus, we find him urging the 
mportance of physiology in the species 
oncept. 

Coming back to the first of the three 
loints that I spoke of earlier, the change 
n concept during the long period in 



phy in his booklet on Plant Breeding 
which contained the reference to Men- 
del's paper on inheritance in peas. Bailey 
later received a letter from De Vrics 

that led him to seek Mendel's paper 
(which Bailey himself had not seen, as it 
was not available to him). For many 
years Bailey spoke and wrote about his 
concept of species, his ideas as to taxon- 
omic procedure. Surely his wide influei 



before 



ed stated, namely I 



papei 



■ only , 



study that in groups like Aquilcgia. A,on- 
itum, Dianthus, Clarkia, and Thynuis the 
herbarium of the Bailey Hortorium has 
much important cultivated material. 
Thus as the years passed. Bailey's ex- 



LASCA LEAVES 



Then followed the period studies on this family in the volumes 

iship at Cornell (1903-1913) of Gcntes Herbarum cover just over 1100 

not productive of taxonomic pages with another 113 pages in collab- 

it after that his reports on his oration with Dr. H. E. Moore, Jj- Most 

several papers describing a merit of this work. I do know, however, 
novelties, again in wild plants. that the collection Bailey brought from 
came a new series of studies the tropics and on which these studies are 
ic in nature, all based on con- largely based exceeds in quality and com- 
;ld study, in some cases garden pleteness that of most or any other palm 
d of course herbarium and collections. His attempt was to get by 
actual pieces and by photographs as com- 
plete a representation of each species as 
American Rubus (a series of papers in possible. Remember too that while doing 
Gentes Herbarum) a study which like the this field work often in very rugged and 
others involved groups of considerable inaccessible places, he was in his seventies 
economic importance. It is yet too early and eighties. I recall that when he re- 
to know what the final disposition of the turned to the Hortorium in the spring of 
many species recognized in this treatment 1946 from some months in Trinidad and 
of Rubus will be. More cytogenetic and Tobago he brought with him a mass of 
other studies are needed. Bailey has, how- material. He arranged this species by spe- 
ever, made us all aware of the great com- cies and went over it with me: photo- 
plexity in this genus in North America, graphs of and notes on habit and stature, 
He has given a careful and accurate dis- photographs of inflorescences and other 
cussion of the material available to him critical parts, specimens of necessary parts 
and has illustrated it beautifully and such as leaves, flowers, fruits. Then he 
painstakingly. Moreover, as never before, showed me material illustrative of the 
he has amassed an herbarium collection names under which many of these West 
of adequate specimens for reference. Indian |ialins had been known. Origin- 
Among other papers of his later period ally many ot these ii.unts had ixei; based 
is the one on North American species of on Brazilian spa rs .iiul Dr. Bailey showed 
Cucurbita (Gentes Herbarum 6: 267-322. nie how diftcrcnt Ihc Brazilian and West 
1943). Here, as in Rubus, he was con- Indian plants were. This paper on the 
cerned with both wild and cultivated Palms of Trinidad and Tobago (Gentes 
plants and, here again, he gives us a Herbarum 7: 352-445. 1947) was pub- 
new basis from which to proceed in the lished in Bailey's 91st year and it is a 
study of this genus. The same is true of natural temptation on seeing the many 
his paper on grapes of North America new species therein described to doubt 
(Gentes Herbarum 3:151-244. 1934). tbtir validity. Knowing nothing about 
To me the most amazing of all his palms but seeing the material on which 
work is that on palms. I believe it is these were based I have more confidence 

period whfn most botanists would be and with each spcxies heaiititulh ' iHus- 

satisfied to rest on their laurels, and ^r^t^j no mean aicomplishnient. 

living in a cold climate from which palm fsfeedfess to say, many ot tlu nalins stud- 

an astonishing lot. No one can^ claim an'Je'"^^ considcrahk econoniu import 

this work unimportant. Certainly so large ' j y^^^^ tiki_n some time iiid m ly seem 

Ind^'iLrelsfngTy so^o'tLt"of*^^^ impressed through this series on mono- 
world, needs to be thoroughly understood, graphic or revisional papers by Bailey s 
So far as I can ascertain his published comprehension and understanding of both 



AUTUMN 1955 



91 



feral and domesticated species in each of known habitat and distribution in the 
croup. They are treated ahke. In papers wild, and culugen for those domesticated 
on blackberries, pumpkins and grapes he plants that have no known origin, whose 
makes no differentiation, but discusses characters separate them from known in- 
plants of the wild and those of the garden, digens, and for which m many cases there 
And now we come to the third point men- type specimen or exact description so 

tioned early in my discussion, that of as to give a clear taxonomic beg.nmng. He 
n 1 • 1 u- ^ found hundreds of such cases among 

Baileys work on cultivated plants pn- ^j^^^^ j^^^ ^^.^^^^ domestication, 
"^^"^y- . He argued that these cultigens need to be 

When we think of this work on culti- admitted into the society of recognized 
vated plants there come to mind first spg^ies. In 1905 (Science 21: 5^2-5^5) 
his books like the Manual of Cultivated he had written that "The old-time distinc- 
Plants, Hortus, and the Cyclopedia of tion between native forms and domestic 
American Horticulture. Here we see forms is arbitrary, unnecessary and per- 
names given to plants of the garden and nicious. All animals are animals and all 
orchard, we arc given descriptions and plants are plants." He acted accordingly 
keys for determination. But we do not and we find in his writings such papers as 
The Domesticated Cucurbitas (Gentes 
Herbarum 2: 62-115. 1929) and The 
Cultivated Brassicas (I.e., 2101267. 
1930), where he treats as species what so 



ilways know what goes on before such 

:ultivated plants vary tremendously as to 
low much they have been modified by 
-nan. Some are almost like the wild spe- 



monographs and floras av 
s have been modified i 

parentage and development i 



mials that he proposes will sta 
atment of the genus Capsicum 
nee, may not be the acceptable c 
dies such as those of Dr. H( 
npleted. His proposed names i 



^ ^ ^ ^ ive a name to a definite form. He des- 

iltivation so long that thev have no close variety and thus made it possible to record 

jscmblance to any wild species now and discuss the entity concerned, 

nown. Some of these Linnaeus named. For many years Dr. Bailey was con- 

ut it is not always easy to know which cerned about the rigidity of our nomen- 

niecies, Linnaeus knew and to which form with reference to domesticated plants par- 
is binominal should apply and to which ticularly. He spoke and wrote repeatedly 
thers various varietal or subspecific epi- to this end. He undoubtedly helped to 
lets can be given. Other cultivated plants bring to a head the movement that has at 
'ere not known by Linnaeus and yet last culminated in 1954 in a nomencla- 
eeded names. Moreover, the general torial code for cultivated plants and which 
Lcliny, at least in America, used to be should help in time to reduce the con- 

ossihility of study by the systematic bot- Not only did Dr. Bailey create the great 

nist. No less an authority than Asa Gray, reference works already mentioned, such 

lio certainly dominated the field of sys- as the Standard Cyclopedia of American 

-matic botany in Bailey's youth, felt that Horticulture and Hortus, but he wrote 

lany domesticated groups were too com- many more specialized works, like those 

lex for satisfactory taxonomic treatment, on Cultivated Evergreens, the Garden of 

The above ideas gradually came to Dr. Pinks, The Garden of Larkspurs, the Gar- 



nd in 1918 1 



den of Gourds, The Garden of Bellflow 



,06-308) the terms mdlgen for plants And all during the ye: 



LASCA LEAVES 



build up the herbarium in which are de- 
posited specimens of so many domesti- 
cated plants as well as wild ones. 

To me Dr. Bailey's contributions to the 
classification of cultivated plants lie in 

(1) He more than anyone else in 
America helped break the prejudice 

cated plants, and showed that they need to 
be approached with the same techniques 
and methods as do other plants. 

(2) He helped develop the method- 
ology for the systematic study of plants in 
general and the philosophy and point of 
view behind such study. Moreover, he 
very ably expressed all this in words. 



William Hertrich— Fellow, American 
Camellia Society: "Mr. William Hertrich, 
Curator Emeritus of the Henry E. Hunt- 
ington Botanical Gardens, San Marino, 
has been elected a Fellow of the American 
Camellia Society in recognition of and 
appreciation for his outstanding contribu- 
tions in the field of horticulture and 
botany, with particular emphasis on the 
genus Camellia L." Such is the quote from 
American Camellia Quarterly, Vol. 10, 
No. 3., July 1955, announcing this fitting 



(3) He made available by his own 
published works both monographic and 
encyclopedic treatments by which culti- 
vated plants can be identified. 

(4) He brought influence to bear 
which led toward a more adequate formu- 
lation of rules for nomenclature of do- 
mesticated plants. 

(5) He assembled an herbarium col- 
lection of cultivated plants different from 
any other in America. 

(6) He urged, and with considerable 
success, the deposition of representative 
material in an herbarium when chromo- 
some counts are published, so that identi- 
brvrrified.^*"^ ^^"""^ concerned can always 



recognition of one of Lasca Leaves' valued 
editorial committee members and advisors, 
and one of its senior contributors. Read- 
ers of Lasca Leaves have not yet been 
privileged to see the photographic repro- 
duction of the Medal of Honor bestowed 
by The Garden Club of America, another 

Mmh 'l'rV955 '(s'ee lIL^'l^I'^J^ Voh 
V, No. 2, Spring 1955; Cactus and Suc- 
culent Journal of America. Vol. 27, No. 2, 
March 1955). Note illustration below. 



LASCA LEAVES 



ANNOUNCEMENT 





SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA HORTICULTURAL INSTITUTE 



Officers 1955 

?resident Ronald B. Townsi 



Treasurer Fred W. Roewekam 

Secrdcirj GEORGE H. Spaldin 



. Victoria 



Board c 



J. Howard Asper Percy C. Everett 

William Beresford Earle E. Humphries 

Howard Bodger Vernon T. Stoute 

Philip Edward Chandler Harold Swanton 

Ralph C. Cornell Richard Westcott 



Robert Casam 
Henry R. Dav: 
Hugh Evans 



Annual Member $ 5.00 year 

Group or Club 5.00 year 

Associate (for individual in member group only) 2.00 year 

Contributing Member 25.00 year 

Commercial Member 50.00 year 

Sustaining Member 50.00 year 

Life Membership 500.00 

Ask the Secretary about privileges of each membership class. 



Meetings: 2nd Thursday of each month. Plummcr Park, 
7377 Santa Monica Boulevard 
Fiesta Hall of the Community Building 

address 
Box 688— Arcadia^California 
Telephone DOuglas i-82o-] 



LASCA LEAVES 

The official publication of the Southern California Horticdltural Institute 

Sponsors of 

LOS ANGELES STATE AND COUNTY ARBORETUM 



Operated by 
LOS ANGELES COUNTY DEPARTMENT 

ARBORETA AND BOTANIC GARDENS 
Box 688 
Arcadia, California 

Telephones: 
Arboretum Offite-^DOuglas 7-3444 
Foundation Office— DOuglas 7-8207 



Georcp H. Spalding 


.Director 

Snpeu.UnJ.n 


Donald P WooiLn 


Ch.f HortuullNU^ 


LoLis B. Mar UN 


PLmi Ph.uAn'^n 


W. QuiNN Buck 


P, .p.^un 


J THt>MAS M(G^H 


Ph>^ Iht ...Ar 


Di^L\ E Nr[v.N 





Thllma G Bi ^sf h vru 
Ri ssi Li \ K M( G Mi 

Edward Huntsman-Trout Li>uis( 



LASCA LEAVES INDEX 1950-1955 





2 



Thorn (Parkjnwnia aculeat. 



Johnson. I 



•etum,'7ll.54 



Jgno-tuber. survival mechanism, V.79 
JIac Fuchsia (Fuchsia arborescens) , IV.39 
Lily Year Book for 1954, The", Royal 
Horticultural Society (review), IV.48 



Kangaroo Paws {Am 



Kellogg, W. K.. ranch, Pomona, Calif., IV.89 
Kennedy, Mrs. Clyde, Saratoga, Calif., IV.85 
Kimball, F. A., National City, Olif., II. 1 
King Solomon, lore of pomegranate, 1.25 
Kirpossoff. Alice Ballantyne, IV.43 



1 ConJitionm^' . Louis B. Marti 
t Paulo, Serviqo, Sao Paulo, Bra 



Hortkole— 1 86 1 ( Zinnia ref . ) , 



London Rocket, air-pollution damage to, V.8 
Longstamen ^Eucalyptus {Eucalyptus macrandra 

Lli^Cft*IV^17^'"" ^""^^ ' 

Lord, Ernest E., Australian author, 1.16 
Lord s Ondle, The {Yucca whippU,), IV.16 
"Los Angeles Beautiful", 

Los Angeles city. Board' of Public Works 
(1910-1914), IV.54 



^ Wjstlake, iy.52-5^ ^ ^ ^ 

Los Angeles County Department of Arbo 

and Botanic Gardens, III.79 
Los Angeles, downtown planting of Ficus 
Los Angeles Express (1888), quote, 1.4 
Los Angeles, 1910 acreage and populatioi 

IV.52 

Los Angeles, Park Board of, 1910-1914, 
Los Angeles Garden Club, IV.47 
"Los Angeles State and County Arborctur 

R. J. Seibert, I.l 
Los Angeles State and County Arborctur 
Policy Affecting Public Use of Arbortt 
Grounds", R. J. Seibert, V.12 
Los Angeles Times' Harry Chandler, I,:s 



, Dr. George P., 




I